мХЦЪП вХМЦХГ ЙШГШ бЕКХЕБЮ

уюпюйрепмше нянаеммнярх ондвхмхрекэмшу янчгнб

б янбпелеммнл юмцкхияйнл ъгшйе


йЮЙ ХГБЕЯРМН, ЯНЧГШ, ЪБКЪЪЯЭ ЯКСФЕАМШЛХ ВЮЯРЪЛХ ПЕВХ, ОНЙЮГШБЮЧР ПЮГКХВМШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ ЛЕФДС ВКЕМЮЛХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ ХКХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪЛХ, МН ЯЮЛХ МЕ ЪБКЪЧРЯЪ ВКЕМЮЛХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ. лНПТНКНЦХВЕЯЙХ ЯНЧГШ ЯННРМНЯХРЕКЭМШ Я ДПСЦХЛХ ВЮЯРЪЛХ ПЕВХ, ХГ ЙНРНПШУ НМХ ПЮГБХКХЯЭ Б ОПНЖЕЯЯЕ СРНВМЕМХЪ Х ЯНБЕПЬЕМЯРБНБЮМХЪ ЯОНЯНАНБ ЯБЪГХ ЛЕФДС ВЮЯРЪЛХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ.

лМНЦХЕ ЮБРНПШ БШДЕКЪЧР ВЕРШПЕ ЛНПТНКНЦХВЕЯЙХУ РХОЮ ЯНЧГНБ Б ЯНБПЕЛЕММНЛ ЮМЦКХИЯЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ: ОПНЯРШЕ, ОПНХГБНДМШЕ, ЯКНФМШЕ Х ЯНЯРЮБМШЕ.

й ОПНЯРШЛ ЯНЧГЮЛ НРМНЯЪРЯЪ: ⌠and, or, but, till, after, so, that, where, when, if■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠My conjecture had been correct: the strangers had slipped in before us, and they now stood by the vault of the Rochesters■. ⌠I should have been careless shepherd if I had left a lamb √ my pet lamb-so near a wolf▓s den, unguarded you were safe■ (Ch.Bronte, ⌠Jane Eyre■).

й ОПНХГБНДМШЛ ЯНЧГЮЛ НРМНЯЪРЯЪ: ⌠until, unless, seeing, supposing, provided, once, directly, because■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠I▓ll stay here until I have finished my work■. ⌠Seeing that he is ill, we▓ll have to postpone the meeting■.

йЮЙ БХДМН, МЕЙНРНПШЕ ОПНХГБНДМШЕ ЯНЧГШ ЛНЦСР ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪРЭ ЯНАНИ ДЕЯЕЛЮМРХГХПБЮММШЕ ТНПЛШ ДПСЦХУ ВЮЯРЕИ ПЕВХ.

й ЯКНФМШЛ ЯНЧГЮЛ НРМНЯЪРЯЪ: ⌠whereas, wherever, however, wherein, whereof■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠Some people prefer going to the theatre, whereas others stay at home watching TV programmes■. ⌠Wherever they came, people greeted them enthusiastically■.

й ЯНЯРЮБМШЛ ЯНЧГЮЛ НРМНЯЪРЯЪ: ⌠as well as, in case, for fear, on condition that, on the ground that, as long as■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠He worked hard for fear that he might fail in his exam■. ⌠I will lend you the book on condition that you return it on Monday■.

бНОПНЯ ЛНПТНКНЦХВЕЯЙНИ ЯРПСЙРСПШ ЯНЧГНБ ПЕЬЮЕРЯЪ, НВЕБХДМН, РЮЙФЕЙЮЙ РНР БНОПНЯ НРМНЯХРЕКЭМН ОПЕДКНЦНБ √ ЯНЧГШ ОЕПЕДЮЧР ДХТТЕПЕМЖХПНБЮММШЕ ЦПЮЛЛЮРХВЕЯЙХЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ, ⌠ОНДРХОШ■ ЦПЮЛЛЮРХВЕЯЙХУ НРМНЬЕМХИ, ЕЯКХ ЛНФМН РЮЙ БШПЮГХРЭЯЪ, ОПХВ╦Л ЩРХ НРМНЬЕМХЪ Б ЙЮЙНИ-РН ЛЕПЕ ЕЫ╦ АНКЕЕ ЮАЯРПЮЦХПНБЮМШ, ВЕЛ НРМНЬЕМХЪ, ОЕПЕДЮБЮЕЛШЕ ОПЕДКНЦЮЛХ.

нДМЮЙН, ЙЮЙ ЛШ МХ ПЮЯЯЛЮРПХБЮКХ ЯРЕОЕМЭ ЮАЯРПЮЦХПНБЮММНЯРХ НРМНЬЕМХИ, ЯКЕДСЕР БЕПМСРЭЯЪ Й НЯМНБМНЛС ЮПЦСЛЕМРС: ЯНЧГШ ЯКСФЕАМШЕ ЯКНБЮ, ХЛЕММН ОНРНЛС, ВРН НМХ КХЬЕМШ МНЛХМЮЖХХ, Х ХЛЕММН ОНЩРНЛС НМХ МЕ ЛНЦСР АШРЭ ВКЕМЮЛХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ. нДМЮЙН Б МЕЙНРНПШУ ЯКСВЮЪУ БНОПНЯ НЙЮГШБЮЕРЯЪ ЯКНФМЕЕ: ЙЮЙ СЙЮГЮМН БШЬЕ, ПЮГПЪД ЯНЧГНБ ОНОНКМЪЕРЯЪ, УНРЪ Х ЛЕДКЕММН, ГЮ ЯВ╦Р ДЕЯЕЛЮМРХГХПНБЮММШУ БЕПАЮКХИ. йПНЛЕ РНЦН, МЕЙНРНПШЕ ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМШЕ ТЮЙРХВЕЯЙХ ТСМЙЖХНМХПСЧР ЙЮЙ ЯНЧГШ, ОПХ ЩРНЛ, МЕЙНРНПЮЪ ДЕЯЕЛЮМРХГЮЖХЪ, НВЕБХДМН, ХЛЕЕР ЛЕЯРН Б ЯХКС РНЦН, ВРН ОПХНАПЕРЮЕРЯЪ МНБНЕ ЦПЮЛЛЮРХВЕЯЙНЕ ГМЮВЕМХЕ, НДМЮЙН Н ОНКМНИ ДЕЯЕЛЮМРХГЮЖХХ ЦНБНПХРЭ МЕБНГЛНФМН. щРН РЮЙХЕ ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМШЕ, ЙЮЙ ⌠the moment■, ⌠the instant■, ⌠the way■, Ю РЮЙФЕ МЮПЕВХЕ ⌠once■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠We▓re leaving the moment I▓ve taken charge of a document Lady Frederica▓s finding for me■ (Powell). ⌠Not in keeping √ with the way we live nowadays■ (Powell).

оН УЮПЮЙРЕПС БШПЮФЮЕЛШУ НРМНЬЕМХИ ПЮГКХВЮЧРЯЪ ДБЮ ЙЮВЕЯРБЕММН ПЮГМНПНДМШУ ЙКЮЯЯЮ ЯНЧГНБ: ЯНВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ Х ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ.

оНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ ЯНЧГШ БЯРПЕВЮЧРЯЪ Б ЯКНБНЯНВЕРЮМХХ ГМЮВХРЕКЭМН ПЕФЕ, ВЕЛ Б ЯКНФМНОНДВХМ╦ММНЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ, НДМЮЙН БЯ╦ ФЕ РЮЙЮЪ БНГЛНФМНЯРЭ ЯСЫЕЯРБСЕР. нМХ ЛНЦСР ББНДХРЭ ЙЮЙ НДМНПНДМШЕ, РЮЙ Х МЕНДМНПНДМШЕ ВКЕМШ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ, ВЮЯРН НМХ ББНДЪР НАНЯНАКЕММШЕ ВКЕМШ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ. рЮЙ БПЕЛЕММШЕ ЯНЧГШ ⌠when, while■ ББНДЪР НАШВМН ОПХВЮЯРМШЕ ЦПСООШ.

б НРКХВХЕ НР ОПЕДКНЦНБ, БШПЮФЮЧЫХУ НРМНЬЕМХЕ Й ЯКНБЮЛ, ЯКНБНЯНВЕРЮМХЪЛ Х ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪЛ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ОПЕДЛЕРМНЯРХ, ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ ЯНЧГШ БШПЮФЮЧР НРМНЬЕМХЕ Й ОПХДЮРНВМШЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪЛ Х Й ОПХВЮЯРМШЛ, ХМТХМХРХБМШЛ, ЮДЗЕЙРХБМШЛ Х ОПЕДКНФМН-ХЛЕММШЛ ЯНВЕРЮМХЪЛ, РН ЕЯРЭ Й ЦПСООЮЛ ЯКНБ Х ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪЛ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ЪБКЕМХЪ, ДЕИЯРБХЪ, ЯНЯРНЪМХЪ. кХЬЭ ЯНЧГШ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ЯПЮБМЕМХЪ (as, than) ЛНЦСР ОПХМХЛЮРЭ ОНЯКЕ ЯЕАЪ, МЮПЪДС Я ОПХДЮРНВМШЛХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪЛХ, ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМШЕ, ЯСАЯРЮМРХБМШЕ ЛЕЯРНХЛЕМХЪ Х ЯСАЯРЮМРХБМШЕ ЯКНБНЯНВЕРЮМХЪ Б ЩККХОРХВЕЯЙХУ ЙНМЯРПСЙЖХЪУ. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠She learned that most of the others were at least as busy as she■ (= as she was). (A.Saxton). ⌠Pollak was forty years older than George■ (than George was). (A.Aldington).

оН ТСМЙЖХЪЛ Х ГМЮВЕМХЪЛ ПЮГКХВЮЧРЯЪ ДБЕ ЦПСООШ ОНДВХМХРЕКМШУ ЯНЧГНБ:

1) ББНДЪЫХЕ ХЛЕММШЕ (ОНДКЕФЮЫМШЕ, ОПЕДХЙЮРХБМШЕ, ДНОНКМХРЕКЭМШЕ) Х НОПЕДЕКХРЕКЭМШЕ ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ - ⌠that, if, whether■;

2) ББНДЪЫХЕ НАЯРНЪРЕКЭЯРБЕММШЕ ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ Х НАЯРНЪРЕКЭЯРБЕММШЕ ЯНЧГМШЕ НАНПНРШ РХОЮif asked?, when in doubt■.

оПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ ОНДКЕФЮЫХЕ ЯНЕДХМЪЧРЯЪ Я ЦКЮБМШЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕЛ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЛХ ЯНЧГЮЛХ ⌠that■√ ВРН, ⌠if, whether■ √ КХ. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠That he has made a mistake is strange.■

йНЦДЮ ОПХДЮРНВМНЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕ ОНДКЕФЮЫЕЕ МЮВХМЮЕРЯЪ Я ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМНЦН ЯНЧГЮ ⌠whether■, РН ОЕПЕБНД РЮЙНЦН ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ МЮВХМЮЧР Я ЦКЮЦНКЮ, ГЮ ЙНРНПШЛ ЯКЕДСЕР ВЮЯРХЖЮ ⌠КХ■, ЯННРБЕРЯРБСЧЫЮЪ ⌠ whether ■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠Whether they will come today is not known yet.■ - ⌠оПХЕДСР КХ НМХ ЯЕЦНДМЪ, ЕЫ╦ МЕХГБЕЯРМН■.

оПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ ОНДКЕФЮЫХЕ ВЮЯРН ЯРНЪР ОНЯКЕ ЯЙЮГСЕЛНЦН, Б ЩРНЛ ЯКСВЮЕ ОЕПЕД ЯЙЮГСЕЛШЛ ЯРНХР ЛЕЯРНХЛЕМХЕ ⌠it■, БШОНКМЪЧЫЕЕ ТСМЙЖХЧ ТНПЛЮКЭМНЦН ОНДКЕФЮЫЕЦН. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠It was lucky that she and Bosinney got on.■ ⌠It was right that his mother should be the first to greet him (P.Abrahams).■

оПХДЮРНВМНЕ ОНДКЕФЮЫМНЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕ МЮГШБЮЕР ЖЕКНЕ ЪБКЕМХЕ, ЯХРСЮЖХЧ Х, ОНЩРНЛС НМН ОНКСВЮЕР Б ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ ХМСЧ, ВЕЛ НАШВМНЕ ОНДКЕФЮЫЕЕ, УЮПЮЙРЕПХЯРХЙС. н М╦Л НАШВМН ЦНБНПХРЯЪ:

Ю) ВРН НМН ХЛЕКН ЛЕЯРН, ОПНХГНЬКН ХКХ ЙЮГЮКНЯЭ БНГЛНФМШЛ, ОПЕДОНКЮЦЮКНЯЭ, НФХДЮКНЯЭ, МЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠It is so happened that she was dining that very evening at Timothys■ (J.Galsworthy).⌠It appears that he was very hard up■ (J.Galsworthy).

А) ВРН ДЮММНЕ ЪБКЕМХЕ АШКН БНГЛНФМН, МЕНАУНДХЛН, ФЕКЮРЕКЭМН ХКХ, МЮНАНПНР, МЕБНГЛНФМН, МЕФЕКЮРЕКЭМН, МЮОПХЛЕП:

⌠It was doubtful if Caterham really heard him at all■ (W.Wells).

⌠It was a mercy that he didn▓t lose his presence of mind■ (Ch.Dickens).

оПЕДХЙЮРХБМШЕ ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ ЯНЕДХМЪЧРЯЪ Я ЦКЮБМШЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕЛ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЛХ ЯНЧГЮЛХ ⌠that, if, whether, as if■, МЮОПХЛЕП:

⌠Me dear boy, the difference between you and me is that you give in too easily■ (A.Cronin).

⌠The thing to be settled on now is whether anything can be done to save him■ (Th.Dreiser).

⌠The trouble is that I have lost his address■.

⌠The question is whether they will be able to help us■.

дНОНКМХРЕКЭМШЕ ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ ЯНЕДХМЪЧРЯЪ Я ЦКЮБМШЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕЛ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЛХ ЯНЧГЮЛХ ⌠that, whether, if■.

оПХ ЮМЮКХГЕ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШУ ЯНЧГНБ Б ЯНБПЕЛЕММНЛ ЮМЦКХИЯЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ, ЛШ НАПЮРХКХ БМХЛЮМХЕ МЮ ВЮЯРНРС СОНРПЕАКЕМХЪ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМНЦН ЯНЧГЮ Х ВЮЯРНРС СОНРПЕАКЕМХЪ ЦКЮЦНКНБ ОНЯКЕ ЙНРНПШУ СОНРПЕАКЪЧРЯЪ ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ДНОНКМХРЕКЭМШЕ ВЮЯРХ ЯПЕДХ ЦКЮЦНКНБ, ОНЯКЕ ЙНРНПШУ СОНРПЕАКЪЧРЯЪ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ ЯНЧГШ, ЛНФМН БШЪБХРЭ МЕЙНРНПСЧ ГЮЙНМНЛЕПМНЯРЭ, ОПЕДКНФЕММШЕ к.к.хНТХЙНЛ. мЮОПХЛЕП:

1) ЦКЮЦНКШ ПЕВХ Х БШЯЙЮГШБЮМХЪ - ⌠ to tell, to say, to inform■;

2) ЦКЮЦНКШ БНЯОПХЪРХЪ -⌠to see, to hear, to feel, to notice■;

3) ЦКЮЦНКШ СЛЯРБЕММНИ ДЕЪРЕКЭМНЯРХ - ⌠to believe, to convince, to consider■;

4) ЦКЮЦНКШ, БШПЮФЮЧЫХЕ ОПНЯЭАС ХКХ БНКЕХГЗЪБКЕМХЕ - ⌠ to ask, to beg■;

5) ЦКЮЦНКШ, БШПЮФЮЧЫХЕ ЙНМЙПЕРМШЕ ДЕИЯРБХЪ - ⌠ to do, to take, to buy■;

6) ЦКЮЦНКШ Я ЛНДЮКЭМШЛ ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ФЕКЮМХЪ, МЮЛЕПЕМХЪ, ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ -

⌠to wish, to hope, to suppose■.

мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠It felt certain now that I had seen him somewhere■ (W.S.Maugham).

⌠I wonder if he likes his job■ (Braine).

⌠We wondered whether Steve knew or understood what had happened■ (Gordon).

⌠My mother wished that she had that pleasure■ (Ch.Dickens).

⌠I see that you are an early riser■ (Ch.Bronte).

йНЦДЮ ЯЙЮГСЕЛНЕ ЦКЮБМНЦН ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ БШПЮФЕМН НДМХЛ ХГ ЦКЮЦНКНБ ⌠to demand■, ⌠to require■, ⌠to insist■, ⌠to advise■, ⌠to recommend■, ⌠to suggest■, ⌠to propose■, ⌠to agree■, ⌠to arrange■, ⌠to order■, ⌠to command■ Х МЕЙНРНПШЛХ ДПСЦХЛХ, ЯЙЮГСЕЛНЕ ОПХДЮРНВМНЦН ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ БШПЮФЕМН ТНПЛНИ ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ √ ЯНВЕРЮМХЕЛ ⌠should + Indefinite Infinitive■ ЯН БЯЕЛХ КХЖЮЛХ ЕДХМЯРБЕММНЦН Х ЛМНФЕЯРБЕММНЦН ВХЯКЮ, МЕГЮБХЯХЛН НР БПЕЛЕМХ, Б ЙНРНПНЛ ЯРНХР ЦКЮЦНК-ЯЙЮГСЕЛНЕ ЦКЮБМНЦН ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ. рЮЙХЕ ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ ЯНЕДХМЪЧРЯЪ Я ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЛ ЯНЧГНЛ ⌠that■ Х ОЕПЕБНДЪРЯЪ МЮ ПСЯЯЙХИ ЪГШЙ ОПХДЮРНВМШЛХ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪЛХ, ЙНРНПШЕ ББНДЪРЯЪ ЯНЧГНЛ ⌠ВРНАШ■ Я ЦКЮЦНКНЛ Б ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМНЛ МЮЙКНМЕМХХ. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠He suggested that the case should be postponed■. - нМ ОПЕДКНФХК, ВРНАШ ДЕКН АШКН НРКНФЕМН.

⌠He recommended that the goods should be shipped at once■. - нМ ПЕЙНЛЕМДНБЮК, ВРНАШ РНБЮПШ АШКХ НРОПЮБКЕМШ МЕЛЕДКЕММН.

⌠The doctor insists that he should go to the south■. - дНЙРНП МЮЯРЮХБЮЕР, ВРНАШ НМ ОНЕУЮК МЮ ЧЦ.

⌠The sellers demanded that payment should be made within five days■. - оПНДЮБЖШ РПЕАНБЮКХ, ВРНАШ ОКЮР╦Ф АШК ОПНХГБЕД╦М Б РЕВЕМХХ ОЪРХ ДМЕИ.

⌠He ordered that the steamer should be unloaded at once■. - нМ ОПХЙЮГЮК, ВРНАШ ОЮПНУНД АШК ПЮГЦПСФЕМ МЕЛЕДКЕММН.

йЮЙ ХГБЕЯРМН, Б РЕУ ЯКСВЮЪУ, ЙНЦДЮ НОПЕДЕКХРЕКЭМНЕ ОПХДЮРНВМНЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕ ББНДХРЯЪ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЛ ЯНЧГНЛ ⌠that■, Б ПНКХ НОПЕДЕКЪЕЛШУ ЯКНБ НАШВМН БШЯРСОЮЧР ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМШЕ ЮАЯРПЮЙРМНЦН ГМЮВЕМХЪ, НАНГМЮВЮЧЫХЕ СЛЯРБЕММСЧ ДЕЪРЕКЭМНЯРЭ: ⌠idea, thought, feeling, impression, doubt, belief, wish, opinion■. мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠Her calm heart could not bear the thought that Ann was lying there so cold■ (J.Galsworthy).

⌠Andrew had an awful feeling that he must laugh■ (A.Cronin).

гДЕЯЭ БНГЛНФМШ ЯКСВЮХ, ЙНЦДЮ НОПЕДЕКЪЕЛНЕ ЯКНБН Б ЯХКС ЯБНЕЦН ЮАЯРПЮЙРМНЦН ГМЮВЕМХЪ ОПЕБПЮЫЮЕРЯЪ Б ЯННРМНЯХРЕКЭМНЕ ЯКНБН, ОПЕДБЮПЪЧЫЕЕ ОПХДЮРНВМНЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕ Б ЦКЮБМНЛ. мЮОПХЛЕП, ЯНВЕРЮМХЕ ⌠the fact that■ ОПЕБПЮРХКНЯЭ, ЯБНЕЦН ПНДЮ, Б ЯНЧГМНЕ ТПЮГЕНКНЦХВЕЯЙНЕ ПЕВЕМХЕ, Ю ОПХДЮРНВМШЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ, АШБЬХЕ НОПЕДЕКЕМХЪЛХ Й ⌠fact■, ЯРЮКХ ХЦПЮРЭ ПНКЭ ХЛЕММШУ.

мЮОПХЛЕП: ⌠A sufficient doze of anxiety is always provided by the fact that we may be blown to smithereens at any moment■ (B.Shaw).

б НРКХВХЕ НР ХЛЕММШУ ОПХДЮРНВМШУ ОПЕДКНФЕМХИ, ЙНРНПШЕ ББНДЪРЯЪ БЕЯЭЛЮ НЦПЮМХВЕММШЛ ВХЯКНЛ ЯНЧГНБ ⌠that, if, whether■, ДКЪ НАЯРНЪРЕКЭЯРБЕММШУ ОПХДЮРНВМШУ ОПЕДКНФЕМХИ УЮПЮЙРЕПЕМ НВЕМЭ ЬХПНЙХИ ЙПСЦ ЯНЧГНБ, БШПЮФЮЧЫХУ ЯЮЛШЕ ПЮГМННАПЮГМШЕ ЯЛШЯКНБШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ. яЧДЮ БУНДЪР ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ ЯНЧГШ Х ЯНЧГМШЕ МЮПЕВХЪ: ⌠when, after, while, as soon as, before, till, where, because, since, as, that, in order that, lest,as if, though, unless, if, suppose, provided, in case■ Х РЮЙ ДЮКЕЕ.

яКЕДСЕР ХЛЕРЭ Б БХДС, ВРН МЕЙНРНПШЕ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШЕ ЯНЧГШ ЪБКЪЧРЯЪ ЛМНЦНГМЮВМШЛХ. рЮЙ, МЮОПХЛЕП, ЯНЧГ ⌠as■, ЙЮЙ БХДМН ХГ ХГКНФЕММНЦН БШЬЕ, СОНРПЕАКЪЕРЯЪ ЙЮЙ ОПХВХММШИ ЯНЧГ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠РЮЙ ЙЮЙ■, ЙЮЙ БПЕЛЕММШИ ЯНЧГ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠ЙНЦДЮ■, ⌠ОН ЛЕПЕ РНЦН, ЙЮЙ■, ЙЮЙ ЯНЧГ НАПЮГЮ ДЕИЯРБХЪ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠ЙЮЙ■.

оНДВХМХРЕКЭМШИ ЯНЧГ ⌠since■ СОНРПЕАКЪЕРЯЪ ЙЮЙ БПЕЛЕММШИ ЯНЧГ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠Я РЕУ ОНП, ЙЮЙ■ Х ЙЮЙ ОПХВХММШИ ЯНЧГ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠ОНЯЙНКЭЙС■.

оНДВХМХРЕКЭМШИ ЯНЧГ ⌠while■ СОНРПЕАКЪЕРЯЪ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠Б РН БПЕЛЪ, ЙЮЙ, ОНЙЮ■ Х ЙЮЙ ЯНВХМХРЕКЭМШИ ЯНЧГ ЯН ГМЮВЕМХЕЛ ⌠РНЦДЮ, ЙЮЙ■, ⌠Б РН БПЕЛЪ ЙЮЙ■, ⌠Ю■.

мСФМН НРЛЕРХРЭ, ВРН ЦПЮМХЖШ ЙКЮЯЯЮ ЯНЧГНБ МЕ ЪБКЪЧРЯЪ БЯЧДС БОНКМЕ НРВ╦РКХБШЛХ. мНБШЕ ЯНЧГШ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМНЦН УЮПЮЙРЕПЮ БНГМХЙЮЧР ХГ ДПСЦХУ ВЮЯРЕИ ПЕВХ. мЮОПХЛЕП, ЯКНБН ⌠directly■ ОЕПБНМЮВЮКЭМН МЮПЕВХЕ (МЮОПХЛЕП, ⌠I went there after breakfast■), ОПЕБПЮЫЮЕРЯЪ Б ЯНЧГ Б ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ РЮЙНЦН РХОЮ ⌠Directly he arrived, he was ushered into the room■. гДЕЯЭ ЯКНБН ⌠directly■ НГМЮВЮЕР ⌠МЕЛЕДКЕММН ОНЯКЕ РНЦН, ЙЮЙ■, ⌠ЙЮЙ РНКЭЙН■. яУНДМШЛ НАПЮГНЛ РПЮЙРСЕРЯЪ ЯКНБН ⌠once■ (ОЕПБНМЮВЮКЭМН РНФЕ МЮПЕВХЕ) Б РЮЙНЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ: ⌠Once you are here, let us start■ √ ⌠пЮГ БШ ГДЕЯЭ, ДЮБЮИРЕ МЮВМ╦Л■. яЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙНЕ ПЮГБХРХЕ ЯКНБЮ ⌠once■ ДН МЕЙНРНПНИ ЯРЕОЕМХ ОЮПЮККЕКЭМН ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙНЛС ПЮГБХРХЧ ПСЯЯЙНЦН ЯКНБЮ ⌠ПЮГ■, ЙНРНПНЕ ОПНЬКН ОСРЭ НР ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМНЦН (НДХМ ПЮГ, БРНПНИ ПЮГ) Й МЮПЕВХЧ (Ъ ПЮГ АШК РЮЛ) Х ДЮКЕЕ √ Й ЯНЧГС (ПЮГ ЩРН РЮЙ, Ъ МЕ ЯОНПЧ). гМЮВЕМХЕ ЩРНЦН ЯНЧГЮ НВЕМЭ ЯБНЕНАПЮГМНЕ, НВЕБХДМН ОПХВХММШЕ НРРЕМЙХ. б ЮМЦКХИЯЙНЛ ЯКНБЕ ⌠once■ Б РЮЙНИ ТСМЙЖХХ МЮ ОЕПБШИ ОКЮМ РНФЕ БШЯРСОЮЕР ОПХВХММНЯРЭ.

мЮЙНМЕЖ, ЮПЯЕМЮК ЮМЦКХИЯЙХУ ОНДВХМХРЕКЭМШУЯНЧГНБ ОНОНКМЪЕРЯЪ Х ГЮ ЯВ╦Р ОПЕДКНФЕММШУ ЯНВЕРЮМХИ. мЮОПХЛЕП, Б ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ ⌠In case he comestell him to wait■ ЯНВЕРЮМХЕ ⌠in case■ ТЮЙРХВЕЯЙХ ПЮБМНГМЮВМН ЯНЧГС ⌠if■ - ⌠ЕЯКХ■. оПНХЯУНФДЕМХЕ ЩРНЦН НАНПНРЮ БОНКМЕ ЪЯМН: ⌠case■ ОЕПБНМЮВЮКЭМН, ЙНМЕВМН, ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМНЕ, Ю ⌠he comes■ √ НОПЕДЕКХРЕКЭМНЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕ. нДМЮЙН Й ЯНБПЕЛЕММНЛС ЯНЯРНЪМХЧ ЪГШЙЮ ЩРНР ЮМЮКХГ СФЕ МЕОПХЛЕМХЛ. яНВЕРЮМХЕ ⌠in case■ ЯРЮКН ВЕЛ-РН БПНДЕ ЯНЧГЮ, ББНДЪЫЕЦН СЯКНБМНЕ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЕ.

дПСЦНИ МНБШИ СЯКНБМШИ ЯНЧГ БНГМХЙ ХГ ОПХВЮЯРХЪ ⌠provided■, МЮОПХЛЕП, Б РЮЙНЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ ⌠He will come, provided you warn him in time■. рЮЙХЛ НАПЮГНЛ, ОПНДНКФЮЕРЯЪ ЯНГДЮМХЕ МНБШУ ЯНЧГНБ ХГ ПЮГМННАПЮГМШУ ХЯРНВМХЙНБ.

аХАКХНЦПЮТХЪ:

1. Alice Maclin. Reference Guide to English: A handbook of English as a Second Language, USA, Washington, 1996.

2. Lily Goksadze, Nana Mamatsashvili, Manana Gigineishvili. An Advanced Course in Current English Grammar, volume I, Tbilisi University Press, 1998.

3. Marianne Celce-Murcia, Diane Larsen √ Freeman. The Grammar Book, An ESL/EFL Teacher▓s Course, Boston, 1983.

4. Michael Swan. Practical English Usage, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 1998.

5. Rodionov A.F. Variants in Current English Grammar, Moscow, 1981.

6. Tipping Llewellyn M.A. A Higher English Grammar, London, 1964.

7. уНПМАХ ю.я. йНМЯРПСЙЖХХ Х НАНПНРШ ЯНБПЕЛЕММНЦН ЮМЦКХИЯЙНЦН ЪГШЙЮ, лНЯЙБЮ, 1998.

S U M M A R Y

═════════ The semantic and functional features of the subordinating conjunctionsin modern English.

The article is devoted to the investigation of the morphological structure of the conjunctions, the functional-semantic features of the subordinating conjunctions in English. This scientific investigation is very important from the typological and practical point of view as it is written for Azerbaijani audience, which learns modern English.

X Ü L A S Ə

═════════ Müasir ingilis dilində tabeli bağlayıcıların semantik və funksional xüsusiyyətlərinin təhlili.

Diqqətinizə təqdim olunmuş məqalənin əsas məqsədi, adından məlum olduğu kimi, müasir ingilis dilində tabeli bağlayıcılarının funksional-semantik xüsusiyyətlərini təhlil etməkdir. Bu məqalədə bağlayıcıların morfoloji strukturu, tabeli bağlayıcıların spesifik xüsusiyyətləri, omonim bağlayıcıları tədqiq edilir.


══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

цЮЯЮМНБЮ т.ц.

юмюкхрхвеяйхе тнплш сякнбмнцн мюйкнмемхъ

б янбпелеммнл рспежйнл кхрепюрспмнл ъгшйе

══════


хГСВЕМХЕ ЮМЮКХРХВЕЯЙХУ ТНПЛ ЦКЮЦНКЮ Б РСПЕЖЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ БЕДЕРЯЪ НВЕМЭ ДЮБМН, МН НЯНАЕММН ХМРЕМЯХБМШЛ Х ОКНДНРБНПМШЛ НМН ЯРЮКН Б ОНЯКЕДМХЕ ДЕЯЪРХКЕРХЪ. оПНДЕКЮМЮ АНКЭЬЮЪ ПЮАНРЮ ОН НОХЯЮМХЧ ЩРХУ ТНПЛ, Х Б МЮЯРНЪЫЕЕ БПЕЛЪ МЮГПЕКЮ ГЮДЮВЮ ХУ РЕНПЕРХВЕЯЙНЦН НЯЛШЯКЕМХЪ. мЕНАУНДХЛН ПЮГПЮАНРЮРЭ ЙПХРЕПХХ БШДЕКЕМХЪ ЮМЮКХРХВЕЯЙХУ ТНПЛ, ЙПХРХВЕЯЙХ НЖЕМХРЭ ЯНЯРЮБКЕММШЕ ПЮМЕЕ ЯОХЯЙХ ХУ Х ЯСЫЕЯРБСЧЫХЕ БНГГПЕМХЪ МЮ ОПХПНДС ТНПЛ, Ю РЮЙФЕ ДЮРЭ ЯХЯРЕЛЮРХВЕЯЙХИ БЯЕЯРНПНММХИ Х СЦКСАКЕММШИ ЮМЮКХГ ЮМЮКХРХВЕЯЙХУ ТНПЛ ЦКЮЦНКЮ РСПЕЖЙНЦН ЪГШЙЮ Б МЕПЮГПШБМНИ ЯБЪГХ Я ДПСЦХЛХ ЦКЮЦНКЭМШЛХ ТНПЛЮЛХ, Я ЙНРНПШЛХ ЮМЮКХРХВЕЯЙХЕ ТНПЛШ БГЮХЛНДЕИЯРБСЧР Х Б ЯНБНЙСОМНЯРХ Я ЙНРНПШЛХ НМХ ЯНЯРЮБКЪЧР ЖЕКНЯРМН ДЕИЯРБСЧЫСЧ ЯХЯРЕЛС.

══════ сЯКНБМНЕ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕ ОПЕДЯРЮБКЕМН Б РСПЕЖЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ ЖЕКШЛ ПЪДНЛ ЮМЮКХРХВЕЯЙХУ ТНПЛ, РЮЙХЛХ ЙЮЙ ТНПЛШ МЮ √ЯЮ, -ЛШЬ НКЯЮ-, -ЛЮЙРЮИЯЮ-, -ЛШЬ ХЯЕ-, -ЛШЬ НКЯЮИДШ-, -ЯЮ АХКЕ-, НАЯРНЪРЕКЭМН НОХЯЮММШЕ х.о.йСГМЕЖНБШЛ, Ю РЮЙФЕ √(И)ЮЯШ НКСПЯЮ- (1-149). йЮЙ Х ТНПЛЮ МЮ √ЯЮ, ЩРХ ТНПЛШ УЮПЮЙРЕПХГСЧРЯЪ ЯКЕДСЧЫХЛ.

══════ 1. нМХ ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЧР ЯНАНИ МЕНРЗЕЛКЕЛШИ ЯРПСЙРСПМШИ ЩКЕЛЕМР СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ, СЙЮГШБЮЪ МЮ ЯХМРЮЙЯХВЕЯЙСЧ Х КНЦХВЕЯЙСЧ ГЮБХЯХЛНЯРЭ ЮОНДНГХЯЮ НР ОПНРЮГХЯЮ Х РЕЛ ЯЮЛШЛ ОПНРХБНОНЯРЮБКЪЪ ОЕПБНЕ БРНПНЛС; СЯКНБМНЕ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕ БМЕ ЩРНИ ОНГХЖХХ ОЕПЕЯРЮЕР АШРЭ ЯЮЛХЛ ЯНАНИ, ОНДНАМН РНЛС ЙЮЙ ЕЦН СЯРПЮМЕМХЕ ХГ ЯНЯРЮБЮ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ НАШВМН ОПХБНДХР Й МЮПСЬЕМХЧ РХОЮОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ; Б НРКХВХЕ НР ЛМНЦХУ ЦКЮЦНКЭМШУ ТНПЛ, ДЮММШЕ ТНПЛШ ГЮ ОПЕДЕКЮЛХ ХУ НАШВМНЦН ЯХМРЮЙЯХВЕЯЙНЦН ОПХЛЕМЕМХЪ КХЬЕМШ ЯЛШЯКЮ √ ЯКЕДНБЮРЕКЭМН, НМХ НРМНЯЪРЯЪ Й ВХЯКС ТНПЛ, ЯХМРЮЙЯХВЕЯЙХ НАСЯКНБКЕММШУ, ХКХ, ЕЯКХ СЦНДМН, ДЮФЕ ЯХМРЮЙЯХВЕЯЙХУ.

══════ 2. нТНПЛКЪЪ ЮОНДНГХЯ Х ЕЦН ОПНРХБНОНЯРЮБКЕММНЯРЭ ОПНРЮГХЯС, ТНПЛШ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ ОН ЯБНЕЛС ГМЮВЕМХЧ НЙЮГШБЮЧРЯЪ БН ЛМНЦНЛ ГЮБХЯХЛШЛХ НР ЯРПНЕМХЪ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ Б ЖЕКНЛ: ЯНДЕПФЮМХЕ ЦКЮЦНКЮ Б СЯКНБМНИ ТНПЛЕ ПЮЯЯЛЮРПХБЮЕРЯЪ МЕ ЯЮЛН ОН ЯЕАЕ, Ю КХЬЭ Б ЕЦН НРМНЬЕМХХ Й ЯНДЕПФЮМХЧ ОПНРЮГХЯЮ, ХАН ЯСРЭ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ Й РНЛС Х ЯБНДХРЯЪ, ВРН ГДЕЯЭ ПЮЯЙПШБЮЕРЯЪ НАСЯКНБКЕММНЯРЭ НДМНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ ДПСЦХЛ, МЕНАУНДХЛНЯРЭ ЯБЪГХ ЛЕФДС ДЕИЯРБХЪЛХ, Ю МЕ ЯНДЕПФЮМХЕ ЩРХУ ДЕИЯРБХИ Х РЕЛ АНКЕЕ МЕ ЯНДЕПФЮМХЕ ДЕИЯРБХЪ, БШПЮФЕММНЦН Б ГЮБХЯХЛНЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ. б РСПЕЖЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ ПЮГКХВЮЕРЯЪ МЕЯЙНКЭЙН ЯРПСЙРСПМН-ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙХУ РХОНБ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ, Х ЯННАПЮГМН Я ЩРХЛ МЕ НДМНПНДМН РЮЙФЕ ЯНДЕПФЮМХЕ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ; РЮЙ, МЮОПХЛЕП, Б НДМНЛ РХОЕ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ СЯКНБМНЕ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕ НАНГМЮВЮЕР ПЕЮКЭМНЕ ОПЕДОНКНФЕМХЕ, НРМЕЯЕММНЕ Б ЯТЕПС АСДСЫЕЦН БПЕЛЕМХ, Б ДПСЦНЛ √ ПЕЮКЭМНЕ ДЕИЯРБХЕ БМЕБПЕЛЕММНЦН РХОЮ, Б РПЕРЭЕЛ √ ХППЕЮКЭМНЕ ОПЕДОНКНФЕМХЕ, ЦПЮМХВЮЫЕЕ Я ФЕКЮРЕКЭМШЛ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕЛ, Х БЯЕ ЩРХ ПЮГМНБХДМНЯРХ ГМЮВЕМХЪ НАСЯКНБКЕМШ ХЛЕММН ЯРПСЙРСПНИ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ Б ЖЕКНЛ.

══════ 3. оПХ БЯЕУ СЙЮГЮММШУ ПЮГКХВХЪУ Б ЯЕЛЮМРХЙЕ ТНПЛ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ МЕХГЛЕММШЛ НЯРЮЕРЯЪ НДМН НАЫЕЕ √ НАНГМЮВЕМХЕ ПЕЮКЭМН БНГЛНФМНЦН ХКХ ХППЕЮКЭМНЦН ОПЕДОНКНФЕМХЪ-СЯКНБХЪ, ЪБКЪЧЫЕЦНЯЪ ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМН БНГЛНФМНИ ОПЕДОНЯШКЙНИ ХКХ СЯКНБХЕЛ ДКЪ ДПСЦНЦН ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМН БНГЛНФМНЦН ХКХ ХППЕЮКЭМНЦН ОПЕДОНКНФЕМХЪ, НАНГМЮВЕММНЦН Б ОПНРЮГХЯЕ Х ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЧЫЕЦН ЯНАНИ ЯКЕДЯРБХЕ ОН НРМНЬЕМХЧ Й ОЕПБНЛС ОПЕДОНКНФЕМХЧ. яРЕОЕМЭ БЕПНЪРМНЯРХ ЩРНЦН ОПЕДОНКНФЕМХЪ-СЯКНБХЪ, ПЮБМН ЙЮЙ Х ЕЦН НРМЕЯЕММНЯРЭ Й РНЛС ХКХ ХМНЛС БПЕЛЕМХ, НАШВМН НОПЕДЕКЪЧРЯЪ МЕ ЯЮЛНИ ТНПЛНИ, Ю ЙНМРЕЙЯРНЛ ХКХ ТНПЛНИ ЦКЮЦНКЮ ОПНРЮГХЯЮ.

══════ юМЮКХРХВЕЯЙХЕ ТНПЛШ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ, НАЗЕДХМЪЪЯЭ Я ТНПЛНИ МЮ √ЯЮ ОН МЮГБЮММШЛ ЯРПСЙРСПМШЛ Х ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙХЛ НРКХВХРЕКЭМШЛ - ЯЮ, ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЪ ЯНАНИ ЕЕ ЯРХКХЯРХВЕЯЙХИ БЮПХЮМР.

══════ тНПЛЮ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ

тНПЛЮ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ ХЛЕЕР Х ЯЮЛНЯРНЪРЕКЭМНЕ Х МЕЯЮЛНЯРНЪРЕКЭМНЕ СОНРПЕАКЕМХЕ. б ОЕПБНЛ ЯКСВЮЕ НМЮ БШЯРСОЮЕР Б ЯНЯРЮБЕ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ ЙЮЙ ЕЦН МЕНРЗЕЛКЕЛШИ ЯРПСЙРСПМШИ ЩКЕЛЕМР, Б ЯБЪГХ Я ВЕЛ ЕЕ НАШВМН ПЮЯЯЛЮРПХБЮЧР ЙЮЙ ТНПЛС ОПНЬЕДЬЕЦН БПЕЛЕМХ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ (2-245) бН БРНПНЛ ЯКСВЮЕ ТНПЛЮ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ ЯСЫЕЯРБС МЕ ХЛЕЕР МХВЕЦН НАЫЕЦН Я СЯКНБМШЛ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕЛ √ НМЮ НАНГМЮВЮЕР НРМЧДЭ МЕ СЯКНБХЕ, Ю ФЕКЮМХЕ Б БХДЕ ЛЕВРЮМХЪ. фЕКЮМХЕ Б БХДЕ ЛЕВРЮМХЪ БШПЮФЮЕРЯЪ Я ОНЛНЫЭЧ МЕЯЙНКЭЙХУ ТНПЛ Б НДМНЛ Х РНЛ ФЕ ЪГШЙЕ. мЮГБЮММШЕ ДБЕ ТНПЛШ МЕЯСР Б ЯЕАЕ НДХМЮЙНБНЕ ЛНДЮКЭМНЕ ГМЮВЕМХЕ.

══════ рХОХГХПНБЮММНЯРЭ ДЮММНЦН ЛНДЮКЭМНЦН ГМЮВЕМХЪ, МЮКХВХЕ ДКЪ ЕЦН БШПЮФЕМХЪ ЯОЕЖХЮКЭМНИ ЛНМНКХРМНИ ЦПЮЛЛЮРХВЕЯЙНИ ТНПЛШ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ , ПЕЦСКЪПМН БШЯРСОЮЧЫЕИ Б РЕУ ЯКСВЮЪУ, ЙНЦДЮ МСФМН БШПЮГХРЭ ЩРН ГМЮВЕМХЕ, БНГЛНФМНЯРЭ НАПЮГНБЮМХЪ СЙЮГЮММНИ ТНПЛШ НР КЧАНЦН ЦКЮЦНКЮ Б КЧАНЛ КХЖЕ Х МЕБНГЛНФМНЯРЭ ЕЕ СОНРПЕАКЕМХЪ Б ЯТЕПЕ ХГЗЪБХРЕКЭМНЦН ХКХ ЙЮЙНЦН-КХАН ДПСЦНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ √ БЯЕ ЩРН ДЮЕР ДНЯРЮРНВМШЕ НЯМНБЮМХЪ, ВРНАШ БШДЕКХРЭ ТНПЛС МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ ЙЮЙ ОНЙЮГЮРЕКЭ ЯЮЛНЯРНЪРЕКЭМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ. щРЮ ТНПЛЮ ОН ЯБНЕЛС ГМЮВЕМХЧ ЯНОПХЙЮЯЮЕРЯЪ Я ДБСЛЪ ПЮГКХВМШЛХ МЮЙКНМЕМХЪЛХ: Я НДМНИ ЯРНПНМШ, Я ФЕКЮРЕКЭМШЛ, Я ДПСЦНИ √ Я ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМШЛ, НДМЮЙН ОПХ БЯЕИ ЯБНЕИ АКХГНЯРХ Й ЩРХЛ МЮЙКНМЕМХЪЛ МХ Б НДМНЛ ЯБНЕЛ СОНРПЕАКЕМХХ ОНКМНЯРЭЧ МЕ ЯНБОЮДЮЕР Я МХЛХ: йЕЬЙХ ЧКЯЕИДХ ДЕ ЧКЖЯЖМЖ ЙЕМДХ ЕКХЛКЕ ЩЧЛЯЕИДХЛ (а.я.йСМР). кСВЬЕ АШ (НМЮ) СЛЕПКЮ, КСВЬЕ АШ ОНЯКЕ (ЕЕ) ЯЛЕПРХ ОНУНПНМХРЭ (ЛМЕ ЕЕ) ЯБНХЛХ ПСЙЮЛХ. тНПЛС МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ РЮЙ ФЕ РПСДМН НРМЕЯРХ Й ФЕКЮРЕКЭМНЛС МЮЙКНМЕМХЧ, ЙЮЙ Х Й ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМНЛС √ КСВЬЕ БЯЕЦН БШДЕКХРЭ ЕЕ Б ЯЮЛНЯРНЪРЕКЭМНЕ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕ, МН ЦКЮБМНЕ √ МЕ НРМНЯХРЭ ЕЕ Й СЯКНБМНЛС МЮЙКНМЕМХЧ Х, Б ВЮЯРМНЯРХ, НАНЯНАХРЭ НР ТНПЛШ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ , СОНРПЕАКЪЕЛНИ Б ЙЮВЕЯРБЕ ЯРПСЙРСПМНЦН ЩКЕЛЕМРЮ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ. оПХ ПЮЯЯЛНРПЕМХХ ЩРХУ ДБСУ НЛНМХЛХВМШУ ТНПЛ МЕКЭГЪ МЕ ЯВХРЮРЭЯЪ Я РЕЛ, ВРН ОН ГМЮВЕМХЧ Х НЯНАЕММН ОН ПНКХ Б ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ НМХ ЯСЫЕЯРБЕММН ПЮГКХВМШ: ЯЮЛНЯРНЪРЕКЭМН СОНРПЕАКЕММЮЪ ТНПЛЮ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ МЕ ХЛЕЕР Я СЯКНБМШЛ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕЛ МХВЕЦН НАЫЕЦН; √ЯЮ- ХДХ Б ГЮБХЯХЛНЛ СОНРПЕАКЕМХХ ЪБКЪЕРЯЪ ТНПЛНИ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ, БЕПМЕЕ ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЕР ЯНАНИ ДСАКЕР СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ, БШЯРСОЮЧЫХИ Б СЯКНБМНЛ ОЕПХНДЕ Х МЕХГЛЕММН СЙЮГШБЮЧЫХИ МЮ ЯННРМЕЯЕММНЯРЭ БШПЮФЕММНЦН ХЛ ДЕИЯРБХЪ Я ДЕИЯРБХЕЛ, ОЕПЕДЮБЮЕЛШЛ Я ОНЛНЫЭЧ ТНПЛ ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ Б ЦКЮБМНЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ, МЮ ГЮБХЯХЛНЯРЭ ОЕПБНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ НР БРНПНЦН Х МЮ БРНПНЯРЕОЕММНЯРЭ ГЮБХЯХЛНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ (ДЕИЯРБХЕ Б ТНПЛЕ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЕР ЯНАНИ СЯКНБМНЕ НАНЯМНБЮМХЕ РНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ, ЙНРНПНЕ БШПЮФЕМН ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМХЛ МЮЙКНМЕМХЕЛ.) яСЫМНЯРЭ ТНПЛШ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ , СОНРПЕАКЪЕЛНИ Б ГЮБХЯХЛНЛ ОНКНФЕМХХ, ГЮЙКЧВЮЕРЯЪ Б РНЛ, ВРН НМЮ ОЕПЕДЮЕР МЕ РНКЭЙН ЯБЪГЭ ДБСУ ДЕИЯРБХИ ЛЕФДС ЯНАНИ, МН Х МЕНАУНДХЛНЯРЭ ЩРНИ ЯБЪГХ. рЕЛ ЯЮЛШЛ ПЮЯЯЛЮРПХБЮЕЛЮЪ ТНПЛЮ НЙЮГШБЮЕРЯЪ МЕНРЗЕЛКЕЛШЛ ЩКЕЛЕМРНЛ ЯРПСЙРСПШ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ Б ЖЕКНЛ: ЕЕ СЯРПЮМЕМХЕ БКЕВЕР ГЮ ЯНАНИ МЮПСЬЕМХЕ РХОЮ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ, НМЮ ЛНФЕР АШРЭ РНКЭЙН ГЮЛЕМЕМЮ ДПСЦНИ ТНПЛНИ СЯКНБМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ. оПЮБДЮ, РЮЙЮЪ ГЮЛЕМЮ ДНОСЯРХЛЮ КХЬЭ Я РНВЙХ ГПЕМХЪ ЯРПСЙРСПМНИ; ОПХ ЯРПСЙРСПМН-ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙНЛ ФЕ ОНДУНДЕ ГЮЛЕМЮ МЕБНГЛНФМЮ, РЮЙ ЙЮЙ ТНПЛЮ МЮ √ЯЮ- ХДХ НАПЮГСЕР ЯБНИ НЯНАШИ ЯРПСЙРСПМН-ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙХИ РХО СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ.

══════ йЮЙ БШРЕЙЮЕР ХГ ХГКНФЕММНЦН, ТНПЛШ МЮ √ЯЮ-ЩДХХ √ЯЮ НАМЮПСФХБЮЧР ЛЕФДС ЯНАНИ НРМЧДЭ МЕ РЮЙХЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ, ЙНРНПШЕ АШ ОНГБНКХКХ СЯЛНРПЕРЭ Б НДМНИ ХГ МХУ БПЕЛЕММНИ ДСАКЕР ДПСЦНИ: ПЮГКХВХЕ ХУ НРМЧДЭ МЕ ЯБНДХРЯЪ Й ПЮГКХВХЧ Б ОКЮМЕ БПЕЛЕМХ, ЙЮЙ ЩРН ОПХМЪРН ЯВХРЮРЭ. б ЯНЯРЮБЕ СЯКНБМНЦН ОЕПХНДЮ ТНПЛЮ МЮ √ ЯЮ НАНГМЮВЮЕР ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМНЕ ДЕИЯРБХЕ, ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЧЫЕЕ ЯНАНИ ОПЕДОНЯШКЙС ДКЪ НЯСЫЕЯРБКЕМХЪ ДПСЦНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ, РНФЕ ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМНЦН; ТНПЛЮ ФЕ МЮ√ЯЮ- ХДХ НАНГМЮВЮЕР МЕНЯСЫЕЯРБХЛНЕ ФЕКЮМХЕ, ЪБКЪЧЫЕЕЯЪ ОПЕДОНЯШКЙНИ ДКЪ ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ, БШПЮФЕММНЦН Б ЦКЮБМНЛ ОПЕДКНФЕМХХ Б ЯННРБЕРЯРБСЧЫЕИ ТНПЛЕ ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ. оПХ ЩРНЛ ЯНДЕПФЮМХЕ ТНПЛШ МЮ√ЯЮМЮУНДХРЯЪ Б ОПЪЛНИ ГЮБХЯХЛНЯРХ НР ЯРПНЕМХЪ ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ Б ЖЕКНЛ √ БЕПМЕЕ, НР ТНПЛШ ЦКЮЦНКЮ ЦКЮБМНЦН ОПЕДКНФЕМХЪ. рЮЙ, МЮОПХЛЕП, Б ЯНВЕРЮМХХ Я ЦКЮЦНКНЛ Б ТНПЛЕ МЮЯРНЪЫЕЦН ХКХ АСДСЫЕЦН БПЕЛЕМХ ЩРЮ ТНПЛЮ ДЮЕР НДМН ГМЮВЕМХЕ, Б ЯНВЕРЮМХХ Я ЦКЮЦНКНЛ Б ТНПЛЕ ОНБЕКХРЕКЭМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ √ ДПСЦНЕ. щРЮ ГЮБХЯХЛНЯРЭ НЯНАЕММН ЯЙЮГШБЮЕРЯЪ Б КНЙЮКХГЮЖХХ НАНГМЮВЮЕЛНЦН ДЕИЯРБХЪ БН БПЕЛЕМХ ПЮЯЯЛЮРПХБЮЕЛНИ ТНПЛНИ: Б ЯНВЕРЮМХХ Я ОНЯКЕДМХЛХ РПЕЛЪ ТНПЛЮЛХ, МЮОПХЛЕП, СЯКНБМНЕ МЮЙКНМЕМХЪМЮ√ЯЮ НАНГМЮВЮЕР ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМНЕ ДЕИЯРБХЕ, НРМНЯЪЫЕЕЯЪ Й ОКЮМС АСДСЫЕЦН БПЕЛЕМХ, Б ЯНВЕРЮМХХ ФЕ Я ТНПЛНИ ЯНЯКЮЦЮРЕКЭМНЦН МЮЙКНМЕМХЪ √ ОНРЕМЖХЮКЭМНЕ ДЕИЯРБХЕ, НРМЕЯЕММНЕ Б ОКЮМ ОПНЬЕДЬЕЦН БПЕЛЕМХ ХКХ ДЕИЯРБХЪ,ЯНБЯЕЛ МЕ КНЙЮКХГСЕЛНЕ БН БПЕЛЕМХ.

══════ хГ ДПСЦХУ НЯНАЕММНЯРЕИ ПЮЯЯЛЮРПХБЮЕЛНИ ТНПЛШ МСФМН СЙЮГЮРЭ МЮ ЕЕ ЯНВЕРЮЕЛНЯРЭ Б РСПЕЖЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ Я ТНПЛНИ МЮ √ЮЗЮЙРШ: яЕМХМ ХЛГЮМШ ЩЧПЛЕЯЕИДХЛ ЫЕЛЕМ ИШПРШО ЮРЮЗЮЙРШЛ. еЯКХ АШ Ъ МЕ СБХДЕК РБНЕИ ОНДОХЯХ, Ъ АШ РСР ФЕ ПЮГНПБЮК Х БШАПНЯХК , ЦДЕ ГМЮВЕМХЕ ТНПЛШ МЮ √ЯЕИДХЛ МХВЕЛ МЕ НРКХВЮЕРЯЪ НР ЕЕ ГМЮВЕМХЪ ОПХ СОНРПЕАКЕМХХ Б ЯНВЕРЮМХХ Я ТНПЛНИ МЮ √ШПДШ:ЯЮЭ НКЯЮИДШ АС ЫЮПЕЙЕРХМ ДШЬШМДЮ ЙЮКШПДШ ЕЯКХ АШ АШК ФХБ, НМ АШ МЕ АШК БНБКЕВЕМ Б ЩРН ДБХФЕМХЕ (1-5).

хЯОНКЭГНБЮММЮЪ КХРЕПЮРСПЮ

1л.я.лХУЮИКНБ ╚бНОПНЯШ ЪГШЙЮ Х КХРЕПЮРСПШ бНЯРНЙЮ╩ л. 1958

2ю.м.йНМНМНБ ╚цПЮЛЛЮРХЙЮ ЯНБПЕЛЕММНЦН РСПЕЖЙНЦН ЪГШЙЮ╩. л-к., 1956

3.х.о.йСГМЕЖНБ ╚сЯКНБМШИ ОЕПХНД РСПЕЖЙНЦН ЪГШЙЮ╩. л.,1950.

уЖКЮЯЪ

══════ лЪЦЮКЪДЪ ЛЖЮЯХП РЖПЙ ДХКХМХМ ЬЪПР ЬЪЙХКВХЯХМХМ ЮМЮКХРХЙ ТНПЛЮКЮПШ РЪЫКХК НКСМСП. еИМХ ГЮЛЮМДЮ АС ТНПЛЮКЮПШМ ДЮМШЬШЦ БЪ ЪДЪАХ ДХКДЪ ЩЕМХЬ БЖЯЪР ЮКДШЭШ ЦЕИД НКСМСП. рЖПЙ ДХКХМДЪ ХЬКЪДХКЪМ ЬЪПР ЬЪЙХКВХКЪПХМХМ ЮМЮКХРХЙ ТНПЛЮКЮПШ ДХКХМ ХМЙХЬЮТШМДЮ ЛЖЪИИЪМ ЦЪДЪП ПНК НИМЮИШП.


 

юkhundova мХЩЮП юПХТ ЙШГШ

THE EXPRESSION OF THE CAUSATIVE IN THE ERGATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS


Let▓s imagine that the basic component of English grammar contains the following rules:

(i) S -> Nom+Pred

════════════ Verb

(ii) ->

══════════════ S

The both of these rules can be used many times.

If the rule (i) is used and later the variant ▒Pred >Verb▓ is used in the rule (ii), then the ⌠exit■ would be scheme of the structure of the nuclear of the simply sentence with the intransitive verb, moreover the substantive or the group of the substantive, which is suitable in the nominative position, would be the subject of the sentence by the definition. The subject at the intransitive verb can be ⌠agentive■ or ⌠nonagentive■, correspondingly, the possibility of this choice will be signed at the name by the indication ⌠plus agentive■ (⌠+ag■) or ⌠minus agentive■ (⌠-ag■). The single-seated (intransitive) verbs should be classified in the lexicon in the correspondence with their potential compatibility with the names in turns of the following ternary op╜position: (a) ⌠agentive or nonagentive■; (b) ⌠only agentive■; ╘ ⌠only nona╜gen╜tive■. The examples of this classification can be the verbs move, jump, die. It is fol╜lowed, that Bill moved can be interpreted either as ⌠+ag■, or as ⌠-ag■, whereas Bill died would be interpreted as ⌠-ag■, and The horse jumped would be interpreted as ⌠+ag■.

The structure of the components, lying in the base of the nuclears of these sentences are presented on the scheme of some single-placed constructions.

But the first use of the rule (ii) can be expressed as ⌠Pred ->S■. In this case the symbol ⌠S■ should be transmitted further into ⌠Nom+Pred■ by the later application of the rule (i). Now the conditions for the second application of the rule (ii) have appeared. If we chose ⌠Pred ->Verb■, the ⌠exit■ will be the scheme of the structure of the components for the double-seated nuclears.

═══════════════ Some single-placed constructions:

S     ═══════════════════════════S═════════════════════════════════════════════ S

═════════ Nom════════ Pred════════════ Nom═════ Pred══════════ ═══════════════Nom═════════ Pred

═══════ [-ag]══════════════════════════════ [-+ag]══════════════════════════════════════ [+ag]

═══════════════════════════ Verb════════════════════════ Verb══════════════════════════════════════════ Verb

══════ Bill═══════ ══════════════════════════Bill══════════════════════════════════════════ Horse

════════════════════════════ die════════════════════════════ move═════════════════════════════════════════ jump

══════════════ (a)═══════════════════════════════════ (b)═══════ ══════════════════════════════════════

══════════ Bill died═════════════════════════════ Bill moved═════════════ ════════════

The horse jumped════════════════════════════

In other wordsat such interpretation of the recursive use of the rules (i) and (ii) the structure of the components, added to the transitive constructions (if we stay aside the intermediate nods ⌠S■ and ⌠Pred■) will be the same as the structure, added by the following two rules:

(a) S -> Nom+Pred

══════════════ Verb

(b) ->

══════════════ Nom+Verb.

This approach to the production of the transitive constructions is taken under consideration in the more transformational investigations. But in the consideration of the transition and ergativity we conclude, that equivalency of the subject of the transitional construction to the subject of intransitional construction is reduced to such surface indications, as the case and agreement, and these last ones can be described by the rules, referring to the following stages of the transformational production.

If we want to reflect the above mentioned the general principle, connected with that object of the two-place nuclear corresponds to the subject of the one-place nuclear, we should accept the second alternative. We should put the one-place nuclear on the place of the predicate in the two-place nuclear. This arises some difficult technical problems.

For the simplicity let▓s take the one of the examples ad hoc. When the one-place nuclear involves in the capacity of the predicate in the transitive construction, we consider, that the ⌠causative■ indication is add to the verb (designated as ⌠+caus■). This indication will receive the different interpretations in the dependence on the different conditions.

Let▓s consider firstly the situiation, at which the included nuclear has ⌠agentive■ nominative element. The two cases are possible. The chosen verb can be marked in the lexicon, showing on its belonging to the small class of the English verbs (jump, walk, gallop, and etc.), which can have the agentive object. In this case the usual transitive construction is the result, for example: John jumped the horse. This means, that ⌠jump+caus■ realizes )on the base of the information, added to the one-place verb jump in lexicone) in the form of jump: the ⌠process■ of so-called ⌠zero modification■ is carried out. But in the many cases the combined appearance of the symbols ⌠Nom+ag■ and ⌠Verb+caus■ in the included nuclear is caused the construction rules of the productive causative constructions with the auxiliary verbs make, get, have and etc. The such ⌠expressed■ causative constructions as John made Bill sing, John got Bill to come and etc., will be the final ⌠exit■ of grammar.

If the included nuclear has the ⌠nonafentive■ nominative element, then it satisfies to more usual transition conditions. Here we have several relevant factors.(1) The verb, chosen from lexicon, can be ⌠ergative■ one, for example move. In this case it includes in the surface structure of the resulting sentence without morphological modifications )with ⌠zero modification■). However, if the two-place verb is the nod realization ⌠Verb:+caus■, the resulting transitive constructions will be determined by the grammar as the causative from the corresponding intransitive (⌠nonagentive■) construction. So, John moved Bill receives the semantic performance after syntactic analysis ⌠John is agent, which is the reason (direct reason) of the )nonagentive) Bill▓s movement. (2) The chosen verb can be such one, with which the two-place form is correlated morphologically, for example soft (in this concrete example is the ⌠adjective■ verb). In the vocabulary the article for soft should contain the information, which allows to realize ⌠soft:+caus■ in the form soften. (3) The chosen verb can be such one, with which the two-place ⌠lexicolized■ form associates, for example die. In this case instead ⌠Berb:+caus■ the corresponding two-place form is substituted. For example, ⌠die+caus■ realizes in the surface structure in the form kill. (4) It is possible that neither the lexical form, nor the morphological one can be found as the operation of ⌠zero modification■ can be inapplicable to the chosen verb. In this case ⌠Verb:+caus■ again will create the one from the productive ⌠expressed■ causative constructions: John made Bill fall, John made Bill responsible (for the administration of the department) and etc.

The production of the transitive constructions in English demands the such approach in the formalization of the relationships, which take place between different sentences classes. I is clear, that there are many transitive verbs, for which it would be hard to speak about the nod realization of the type■Verb:+cay\us■. They can be called the ⌠based transitive■ verbs. The examples can be eat and read. It is no need to treate eat and read as the two-place realixations of the ⌠fictive■ one-place verbs. The ⌠nonagentive■ one-place verbs Caviare is eaten and The book is read are passive not only on the form, but also just as the such sentences as Bill is moved and in the contrast from such sentences as Bill moves, they suppose the ⌠agent■ existence (which in the passive constructions can be shown or not). There is no need to transmit the syntactic treatment on the ⌠based transitive■ sentences, then in the rule (ii) we should make the third possibility of the choice. If we add this rule by the following way:

══════════════════════ Verb

════════ Prede -> Nom+Verb

════════════════════ S

then it▓s possible to save the preferences of the both alternatives. This addition allows us to connect the more acceptable approach to the production of the transitive constructions with the method of the exit of the two-place nuclears from the included one-place nuclears. However, this addition increases the quantity of the problems of the technical character. If we can be responsible to these problems, then the integration of two approaches would have the preference, connected with the formalization of the following opinions: ⌠Some transitive constructions in the language are based ones, in that meaning, that they have the deep subject and the deep object.

═══════════════ Some two-place constructions:

S     ══════════════════════════════════════S═════════════════════════════════ S

══════════ Nom══════════ Pred═════════════════Nom═════════ Pred════════════ Nom══════════ Pred

═════════ [+ag]═════════════════════════════════════ [+ag]═════════════════════════════ [+ag]

═══════════════════════════════ S═════════════════════════════════════════ S═══════════════════ ════════════════S

═══════════ John══════════════════════════════════════ John═════════════════════════════ John

════════════════════════ Nom═══════ Verb═════════════════════ Nom═════ Verb══════════════════ Nom═══════ Verb

═════════════════════════ [+ag]══ ════[+caus]════════════════ [-ag]══════ [+caus]═════════════ [-ag]═══════ [+caus]

══════════════════════════ Bill═══════════ sing════════════════════ Bill════════════ move═════════════ Bill══════════ die

══════════════════════════ (a)═════════════════════ ═════════════════════════════(b)══════════════════════════════════

═══════════ John made Bill sing.═══════════════════ John moved Bill.═════════════════ John killed Bill.

The another constructions are derivative ones and their object is the transformed, one-place, nonagentive subject■. This judgment express point of view, which often was said by many linguists, working in the limits of the less formal approach of the traditional grammar. In the first part of this judgment is reflected the transition conception, which was treated by the formalized description in the works of Chomsky [1]. It is need that the theory of the generative grammar would give the possibility to formalize both points of view, added to the sentences, containing the different classes of the lexical units.

If the rules (i) and (ii) would be use many times, they would produce the schemes of the structure components with any number of the positions for the substitution of the names. In the case of the third-place nuclears with the included transitive (⌠derivative■ or ⌠based■) nuclear, we should foresee the possibility of the subject transformation of this two-place nuclear in the position of the ⌠indirect object■ in the third-place constructions. But this ⌠shift■ of the subject of the two-place construction till the adjunct status, is the obligatory only in the case of ⌠lexicolizated■ third-place causatives, for example: give, show (which reminds the subject ⌠shift■ in the result of the rules action, exiting the two-place constructions from the two-place active ones).Let▓s propose, that Bill sees the book is represented by itself the ⌠based■ transitive construction. The nuclear, lying in its base, in which Bill is the subject, and book is the object, icludes into third-place causative sentence, where John is the subject, and ⌠see:+caus■ realizes in the form show, i.e. Zjohn shows the book to Bill. However, ther are few ⌠lexicolized■ causatives in the language. ( their number will be bigger, if we refer to their number the verbs of the type persuade, which could be considered as ⌠lexicolized■ causative, corresponding to the two-place believe with the combination with the nominalized sentence in the capacity of the object; Bill believed that the earth was flat: John persuaded Bill that the earth was flat. The consideration of such constructions could be led to the appearance of the additional difficulties).

In many cases on this third step of the cycle the ⌠expressed■ causative construction is used. Let▓s propose, that the verb die, chosen from the lexicon in the position, to which the two causative indications are added in the result of the use of the inclusion rules: ⌠Verb:+caus, +caus■. There are no lexical or morphological three-place forms in the language, which would correspond to the verb kill in the same way, as the verb kill corresponds to the verb die. That▓s why on the third step the one of the causative auxiliary verbs is entered. The example of that type of the sentences, which could be described in such way, could be Tom made John kill Bill. Note, that at the use of the causative auxiliary verbs get and have the included the two-place nuclear can have two alternative forms (⌠active■ and ⌠passive■); Tom had John kill Bill vs. Tom had Bill killed (by John). The ⌠passive■ form on its structure is looked like the sentences, which are usually used at the ⌠lexicolized■ three-place causatives, in that meaning, that the subject of the two-place nuclear has the adjunct status. Finally, it is need to note, that ⌠expressed■ causative construction (in English and many other languages) is the endlessly recursive one: Peter made Hurry make Frank .....make Tom make John kill Bill.

═══════════════ Some three-place constructions.

S     ═══════════════════════════════════════S═══

════════ Nom════════ Pred ════════════════════Nom════════════ Pred

═══════ [+ag]═════════════════════════════════════ [+ag]

══════════════════════════ S════════════════════════════════════════════════ S════ ═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

═══════ Nom═════════════ Pred═════════════════════════════ Nom═══════ Pred

═══════ [+ag]══════════════════════════════════════════════════ [+ag]

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════ S

════════ Bill════════════════════════════════════════════════════ John══════════════════════

═════════════════════════ Nom════════ Verb════

══════════════════════ [-ag]═════════ [+caus]

════════════════════════════════════════ [+caus]═════════════════ ══════Nom═══════════ Pred

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════ [-ag]

═════════════════════ book

═══════════════════════════════════════════ see══════════════════════════════════════════════════ Verb

═════════════ ═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════Bill══════════ [+caus]

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════ [+caus]

═══════════════════════════════ ════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════die

Especially because of this reason the rules (i) and (ii) are constructed as the endlessly recursive ones by the character of their use.

═══ Note, that our hypothesis somehow call to one another with the ideas, which appear in the last linguistic works, devoted to the theoretical syntax. There are two general moments. Firstly, we base on the more ⌠abstract■ conception of the deep structure of the components, than that, which was accepted earlier on the transformational grammar, in particular, we use such ⌠indications■ as ⌠+ag■, ⌠+caus■ and etc.,and these ⌠indications■ are not the components in the meaning, that is the constituent auxiliary element ⌠Pred■ or the term element ⌠Verb■, but they are added to the such components with the aim of the supply of the right work of the transformational rules or the rules of the lexical realization. Secondly, our approach proposes or means, that lexical and syntactic structure of the language partly are determined by such principles, as ⌠agentivity■, ⌠causativity■, ⌠state■ (vs. ⌠activity■ or the ⌠process■). This second state shows, that theoretical syntax returns to the assumption of the traditional, ⌠conceptual■ grammar. This is done not in the prejudice to those criterions of the strictness and accuracy of the formulations, which were firstly emphasized by the linguists in the result of their conscious opposition in the traditional grammar.

═══ Traditional determination of the voice as the grammatical category says: ⌠ The voice category means the relationship between subject of the action (the producer of the action ) and the object, finding its expression in the verb form■ [2]. In other words, the voice is determined as the ⌠ expression of the relationship of the action to its subject and object in the verbal form■. Thus, according to these determinations in the grammatical category of the voice the relationships between subject and the object of the action or the relationships between action and subject and object of the action are reflected, i.e. it is established, that the meaning of the grammatical category of the voice forms on the base of such logical categories, as the category of the action, subject, subject and object of the action.

No from any above mentioned determinations it▓s impossible to consider as the right one, i.e. only the consideration of the character of the relation of the action to its subject and object or the relationships between the subject or the object of the action gives the possibility to limit the separate types of the verb voices from each other. Thus, for example, in Russian the essential passive and active voices, which designate the one and the same relationships between subject and the object of the action or the action to its subject and object are emphasized, that is accepted by the authors, which write the following according to this: ⌠ The active and the passive participles in Russian represent themselves the parallel constructions, related in the language differently, in the dependence of the goals of the speakers, the one and the same relationships of the reality■. In this connection at the limitation of the active and passive voices in Russian the additional indications are entered: Under the passive meaning in the grammatical meaning is meant such relationship between the producer of the action and the object of the action, when the real object of the action is represented in the sentence as the subject - in the form of the nominative case, and the real producer of the action is represented as the addition - in the form of the instrumental case without preposition...■ [3].

Thus, though the grammatical category of the voice indeed forms on the base of the ref╜lection of the relationships of the action to its subject and object, the condition of the emphasizing of this or that voice is the not only the presence of the special verbal form, showing on the corresponding type of the relationships of the action to its subject and object, but other some grammatical indications, especially: the type of the correlation of the subject and the addition with the subject And object of the action. On the assumption on this, it is possible to give the voice determination: the voice category is characterizes this or that correlation of the subject (grammatical subject) and the addition (grammatical object) with the subject and the object of the action, defined by the verb and confined to its definite form. Thus, the voice category is the complex syntactic-morphological category, defining the structure of the sentence itself.

In the connection with the definition of the voice, given earlier, it is need to differ the following conceptions: the conception of the subject of the action, which shows on the real executor of the action (carrier); the conception of the logical subject as the one of the members of the judgment, showing on the object, about which the something new in the predicate for the interlocutors is informed; the conception about the subject as about the one of the sentence centers, characterized by the definite indications for each language; the conception of the grammatical subject and conception of grammatical object. Firstly, though the subject is the specific form of the expression of the logical subject, this last one can be expressed also by any other member of the sentence or the group of the sentence members. Secondly, especially the variety of the types of the correlation of the subject and the addition with the subject and the object of the action, each of which is confined to the definite verbal form (types of the correlations), gives the base for the emphasizing of the separate voices. Thirdly, though the subject and the grammatical subject, equally as the addition and the grammatical object, show on the one and the same conception, the grammatical subject and the grammatical object can receive the expression, separate from the subject and the addition, in the verbal forms, in such cases, when the subject and the addition as the sentence members are absent and when it is possible to say about the correlation of the subject of the object of the action with the grammatical subject and the object [4].

The last situation demands the some explanations. As for the correlation of the grammatical subject and the subject, then it is enough to refer to Russian in this connection, in which the verb agrees with the subject by its form, and thus the verb form shows on the character of the subject as for example, in the sentences: I go, You go, He goes and etc. Thus, the grammatical subject is expressed in these cases in two times: by the separate word, representing in the function of the subject and by the grammatical indications in the verb form, by its personal endings. In the concrete con╜text, for example, in the dialogue, the subject can be absent, and then the only mean of the expression of the grammatical subject stays the personal ending of the verb.

In Russian in the verb form the grammatical subject is only expressed, but the grammatical object can be expressed only by the separate word, representing the addition function. But there are languages, in which the grammatical object is expressed also in the verb form, for example in the languages with the subject-objective conjugation, in such languages as Chuckchy, Nenets or Eskimo, in which there are grammatical indications, expressing the grammatical subject and grammatical object in the verb form. The grammatical object of the action can be expressed only by the verb form. In the languages with the subject-objective conjunction of the verb in the concrete context, the subject, addition can be absent, and thus, the grammatical subject and object in these cases are expressed only by the verb form.

It is need to emphasize, that speaking about the expression of the grammatical subject by the subject, we go aside from the lexical meaning of the word, representing in this function and we take it only as the component of the syntactic structure of the sentence. As for the substantial lexical meaning of the word, representing in the function of the subject, then itis represented as the means of the designation of the real subject of the action (carrier).

════ As it is followed from the above mentioned determination of the voice between the logical categories of the subject of the action (carrier) and the object of the action, from the one handand from the another one,the grammatical categories of the subject and the addition, there is no one agreement in the dependence on the verb voice they are in the different relationships. So, if in Russian at the active voice of the verb the subject express the subject of the action , and the addition express the object of the action (The workers construct the building), then at the passive voice of the verb we have the opposite correlation: the subject express the object of the action, and the addition express the subject of the action (The building is constructed by the workers), and at the reflexive middle voice of the verb the subject means the such subject of the action, which is also its object (The boy is washing). In many languages the other set of voices are emphasized, as for example, stimulating and mutual voices. At the stimulating voice the subject means the such subject of the action, from which the stimulation to carry out the corresponding action is went, but which is done by the stimulation object; consequently, at this voice the addition means the object, on which the stimulation to carry out the corresponding action is directed and which is also the subject of this action.

Thus, the category of the voice gives the possibility to express the most different and often most complex relationships between the subject, object and the action. It is need to take under the consideration the fact, that though in the grammatical category of the voice the objective connections between subject, object and the action are reflected, this doesn▓t exclude the significant differences between the categories of the voice in the separate languages; firstly, these or that types of these interrelationships can be differently expressed even in the one and the same language, that we have for example, at the active and the passive voice of the verb, when in the first case the subject means the subject of the action, the addition means the object of the action, and in the second case the subject means the object of the action, and the addition means the subject of the action; secondly, these relationships can be not expressed only by the grammatical method, especially by the essential verbal forms, but also by the descriptive methods, i.e. not in the language forms themselves.

The fact that the one and the same type of the subject-objective relationships can be differently reflected in the one language (the passive and the active constructions of the sentence) or in the different languages, can▓t be explained by clear language reasons.

Paul [5] had the opinion, that the one from the voice structures of the sentences, especially the passive construction of the sentence is caused by the splitting of the thought on the psychological subject and the psychological predicate. ⌠The use of the passive voice presents the possibility to transfer such psychological subject, which at the construction with the active voice would receive the grammatical form of the addition, into the grammatical subject- especially this is the main reason of the use of the voice construction■, wrote Paul.

In the theory of the ergative construction of the sentence of Shukhard [6] the important place takes the proposal about the fact, that in the passive construction of the sentence the name in the main case designating the object of the action, also designates the logical subject and precedes to the logical predicate, whereas in the sentence, active by its character, the name in the main case express simultaneously the real subject, i.e. the subject of the action, the logical subject, and also precedes to the logical predicate, and the object of the action is designated by the name in the accusative case.

Krushelnitskaya [7] also has the definite determinations according to this. ⌠ Thus, the use of the passive voice is determined by the communicative task of the speaking. It is the appropriate, but sometimes it is needed in those cases, when patients is the present one. From this point of view the passive is represented by the expression of the tendency to the unification of the form, in this the present one is represented, i.e. to the destroy of the disparity between the form and content. Being the present by the meaning, patients becomes the subject by its form, i.e. especially the subject is represented as the present in many cases■.

In most different languages there is the tendency to establish the correspondence between the splitting of the thought by the communicative burden of its separate components and by the grammatical form of their expression. In a particular, there is the foundation to consider, that the subject as the sentence member appears in the languages as the special form of the expression of the subject of the judgment, question, stimulation. That▓s why there is also the proposal that the striving to establish the agreement between grammatical form and the communicative burden in those cases, when object of the action is the object of the thought, its initial point was the one from the factors, caused the appearance of the passive construction and the perception about the passive voice is represented as the subject of this thought. However, in the languages with the ergative constructions the another tendency takes place, especially the tendency to transfer the such member of the sentence into the subject, which means the subject of the action, expressed by the transitive verb and which in many languages with the ergative constructions, presents by itself the name in the one of the direct cases. Besides, the perception of the subject of the judgment, question, stimulation doesn▓t coincide with the perception of the subject of the action (carrier), in the result of which the above mentioned tendencies can act in the different directions. The preference of the first tendency in the Indo-European languages has led to the appearance of the passive construction of the sentence. By this also it is possible to explain the fact, that in these languages exception some Indian languages, in which this phenomenon presents itself the result of the later development, there is no ergative construction of the sentence. The preference of the second from the tendencies has led to the appearance of the ergative construction of the sentence in the set of the Caucasian languages, in which there is no the passive construction of the sentence because of the same reason. However, the such situation can be, when in this or that language both tendencies reveal their actions equally, in the result of which in this languages the ergative, nominative and passive constructions of the sentence can be existent simultaneously.

It is significant to note, that in the ergative construction of the sentence the name in the base (absolute) case, designating the object of the action, as the name in the ergative case, designating the subject of the action, is usually represented as the one from the organizing centers of the sentence, receiving the reflection in the verbal form by the inclusion the essential indexes in it, that is the foundation for the point of view, according to which the direct addition in the ergative construction is the main member of the sentence along with the subject.

The materials of the different languages allow us to emphasize the set of the steps, being the intermediate, ergative and nominative constructions of the sentence. In Khanty language there are the passive structure of the sentence, in which the verb agrees with the subject only in the main case, designating the object of the action; two types of the ergative structure, in first of which the verb-predicate agrees as with the subject in the local case, designating the subject of the action, whereas as in the second type of the ergative constructions the verb agrees with the only subject in the local case, designating the subject of the action.

══ In Chukchy language there is only one type of the ergative construction. In this construction the verb-predicate agrees with the subject in the ergative (instrumental) case in the face and number, and with the addition in the main (direct) case. However, in this Chukchy language with all that, the such nominative construction can be, in which the verb agrees with the subject in the main (direct) case, designating the subject of the action, in the face and number and it has the general rule on the object of the action, designated by the name in the direct case (instrumental, dative-directive or local).

Finally if we consider the Georgian, then it turns out, that though the subject at the transitive verb in the contrast of the subject at the intransitive verb can be in the essential ergative case, in this case in the modern Georgian language the secondary members of the sentence can be already presented, whereas in the Chuckchy the secondary members of the sentence are presented in the form of the ergative case. From this it is followed, that in Georgian the ergative construction is closer to the nominative one, than in the other languages. The ergative case in Georgian takes the different place in the paradigm of the conjunction, than the ergative case in Eskimo or Chuckchy languages.

Thus, there is a foundation to consider, that the syntactic structure of such voice constructions of the sentence, as the passive one, is determined genetically by the logical structure of the judgment, i.e. the object of the action is represented as the object of the thought, and the subject is the such language category, which is treated in the language as the means of the expression of the logical subject, the tendency to bring to the agreement the form of the name, designating such object of the action with its communicative burden, appears. From this, however, it isn▓t followed, that in the passive constructions of the sentence of this or that language on its modern stage of the development, the subject, designating the object of the action, always express the logical subject.

Reference:

1.Noam Chomsky. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

2.V.Z. Panphilov. 1979.The interrelations of the language and meaning. Language and Comunication 11, ╧ 1-2, pp.3-28.

3.O. Espersen. 1958. Grammar Philosophy. M., p.187.

4.I.I. Meshaninov. 1967. The ergative construction in languages of the different types. L., pp.47-61.

5.G. Paul. 1960. The principles of language history. M., pp. 333-334.

6.G. Shukhard. 1950. About active and passive character of transitive verb. Ergative construction of sentence., pp 103-104.

7.K.G. Krushelnitskaya. 1948. The meaningful function of word order in German. M., pp 33-34.

пЕГЧЛЕ:

══ б ЩРНИ ПЮАНРЕ АШКН ПЮЯЯЛНРПЕМН ЙЮСГЮРХБМНЕ БШПЮФЕМХЕ Б ЩПЦЮРХБМНИ ЙНМЯРПСЙЖХЧ сЯРЮМНБКЕМН, ВРН ⌠БШПЮФЕММЮЪ■ ЙЮСГЮРХБМЮЪ ЙНМЯРПСЙЖХЪ (Б ЮМЦКХИЯЙНЛ, ЙЮЙ Х БН ЛМНЦХУ ДПСЦХУ ЪГШЙЮУ) ЪБКЪЕРЯЪ АЕЯЙНМЕВМН ПЕЙСПЯХБМНИ.

XulasЪ:

аС ХЬДЪ ЙЮСГЮРХБ ХТЮДЪЕРЛЪ ЕПЦЮРХБ ЙНМЯРПСЙЯХИЮДЮ АЮУШКЛШЬДШП. лЖЪИИЪМ ЕДХКЛХЬДХП ЙХ, ╚ХТЮДЪКХ╩ ЙЮСГХРХБ ЙНМЯРПСЙЯХИЮ (ХМЩХКХЯ БЪ АЪЬЦЮ ДХККЪПДЪ ДЪ) ЯНМЯСГ ПЕЙСПЯХБКХИЪ ЛЪЫЯСЯДСП.


 

ъliyeva AynurЪ

BжRHANI - QATELжэъTIVъONUNъLYAZMANжSXъLъRI

══════


AzЪrbaycan MEA MЪhЪmmЪd FЖzuli adШna ъlyazmalar хnstХtutu ХstЪr bЪdХХ, ХstЪrsЪ dЪ elmХn mЖxtЪlХf sahЪlЪrХnЪ aХd olan, uzaq keВmХЬХ ЧzЖndЪ Ъks etdХrЪn vЪ ХlkХn mЪnbЪ kХmХ mХsХlsХz ЪhЪmХyyЪt daЬШyan yazШlШ abХdЪlЪrХn mЖhafХzЪ olunduЭubХr mЪbЪddХr. ZЪngХn ЪdЪbХ-bЪdХХ vЪ mЪdЪnХ ХrsХ ЧzЖndЪ hХfz edЪn hЪmХn Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХnХn bХr qХsmХnХ nЪsХldЪn-nЪslЪ keВЪrЪk, dЧvrЖmЖzЪ qЪdЪr gЪlХb Вatan klassХk lЖЭЪt nЖmunЪlЪrХ tЪЬkХl edХr.

BelЪ yazШlШ abХdЪlЪrdЪn bХrХ dЪ ⌠BЖrhantЪxЪllЖslЖ MЪhЪmmЪd HЖseyn b. XЪlЪf TЪbrХzХ tЪrЪfХndЪn qЪlЪmЪ alШnmШЬ farsca-farsca ХzahlШ ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■ (TutarlШ sЖbut) lЖЭЪtХdХr. MЪhЪmmЪd HЖseynХn ЪslХ TЪbrХz ЬЪhЪrХndЪn olmuЬ, lakХn o, HХndХstanda yaЬamШЬdШr (Bax: 1. 55; 20. 253-54). TЪЪssЖflЪr olsun kХ, mЖЪllХfХn tЪrcЖmeyХ-halШ haqqШnda mЧvcud tarХxХ mЪnbЪlЪrdЪ demЪk olar kХ, dolЭun vЪ ЪtraflШ mЪlumatlar verХlmЪmХЬdХr (Bax: 5.4). MЪhЪmmЪd TЪbrХzХ BЖrhanХ-qatenХ h.q. 1062 (1651/52)-cХ ХldЪ HХndХstanШn HeydЪrabad bЧlgЪsХnХn Dekon ЬЪhЪ╜rХndЪ yazmШЬ, kХtabШn yazШlma tarХxХnХ sonda ЪbcЪd Жsulu ХlЪ qeyd etmХЬdХr. O, bu kХtabШnШ CЪnubХ HХndХstanda qurulan QЖtbЬahlar dЧvlЪtХ sultanlarШndan olmuЬ ЬХЪ mЪzhЪblХ Abdullah QЖtbЬaha (h.q. 1023-1083)/m. 1614/1672) hЪsr etmХЬdХr.

жmumХyyЪtlЪ, fars dХlХ leksХkoqrafХyasШnda ЪlХfba sШrasШ ХlЪ lЖЭЪtlЪrХn tЪrtХb olunmasШna XVшш ЪsrХn шш yarШsШndan sonra baЬlanmШЬdШr. MЪhz MЪhЪmmЪd HЖseyn hЪmcХnХn hЪcmХnХn bЧyЖklЖyЖnЪ gЧrЪ dЪ ЪvvЪlkХ lЖЭЪtlЪrdЪn fЪrqlЪnЪn bu kХtabШ ХlЪ hЪmХn ЪnЪnЪnХn baЬlanЭШcШnШ qoymuЬdur (Bax: 4. 19-20).

хyХrmХ mХndЪn Вox sЧzЖ ЧzЖndЪ bХrlЪЬdХrЪnBЖrhanХ-qategenХЬ mЖqЪddХmЪ ХlЪ baЬlayШr. MЖqЪddХmЪdЪ mЖЪllХfХn ЪvvЪlkХ lЖЭЪtlЪrdЪn fЪrqlХ bХr lЖЭЪt yazmaq ХstЪyХ qeyd olunmuЬ, fars dХlХ vЪ qrammatХkasШ ХlЪ baЭlШ bЪzХ mЪlumatlar doqquz bЧlmЪ ⌠ЭaedeЖzrЪ Хzah olunmuЬdur.

LЖЭЪtХn tЪrtХb prХnsХpХnЪ gЪldХkdЪ, hЪr hЪrf bХr bЧlmЪ kХmХ qЪbul olundu╜Эun╜dan, ⌠qoftar■ baЬlШЭШ altШnda ХyХrmХ doqquz bЧlmЪ ЖzrЪ qruplaЬdШrШlmШЬdШr. HЪr ⌠qoftar■ da ⌠bЪyan■ adlШ daxХlХ bЧlgЖlЪrdЪn tЪЬkХl olunmuЬdur.

⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■ nЪХnkХ Чz dЧvrЖndЪ, hЪtta sonrakШ ЪsrlЪrdЪ belЪ uzun mЖd╜dЪt masaЖstЖ kХtab rolunu qoruyub saxlaya bХlmХЬdХr. ZЪngХn sЧz ehtХyatШnШ ЧzЖn╜dЪ toplayan lЖЭЪt gЧrkЪmlХ хran alХmХ doktor MЪhЪmmЪd MuХnХn dЪ dХqqЪtХnХ cЪlb etmХЬdХr. BelЪ kХ, h.Ь. 1330-35 (m. 1951-1956)-cХ ХllЪr arasШnda MЪhЪmmЪd MuХnХn redaktЪsХ ХlЪ dЧrd cХld ЬЪklХndЪ cap olunmuЬ ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■, uzun ХllЪr son╜ra h.Ь. 1342-62 (1963-1983)-cХ ХllЪrdЪ alХmХn ЪlavЪlЪrХ toplanmШЬ V cХldlЪ bЪra╜bЪr daha mЖkЪmmЪl ЬЪkХldЪ oxucularШn dХqqЪtХnЪ ВatdШrШlmШЬdШr (Bax: 7. dХbaВЪ; 2. 432).

══════ Bununla yanaЬШ, nЪХnkХ хranda, hЪtta TЖrkХyЪdЪ belЪ maraq daХrЪsХnЪ sЪbЪb olan ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■ mЖtЪrcХm AsХm ъfЪndХ tЪrЪfХndЪn tЖrk dХlХnЪ tЪrcЖmЪ olun╜muЬdur. AsХm ъfЪndХ tЖrk oxucusu arasШnda daha Вox ⌠BЖrhan-Ш KatХTercЖme╜sХ■ adШ ХlЪ mЪЬhur olan vЪ altШ ХllХk ВalШЬmadan sonra bЪzХ ЪlavЪlЪrХ ХlЪ bХrlХkdЪ cЪmadХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnШn 1-Х 1212-cХ ХldЪ (22.10.1797) хstanbulda tamamlamШЬ ЪsЪrХ ⌠TХbyan-Ш NafХ der Terceme-Х Burhan-Ш KatХ■ kХmХ adlandШrmШЬdШr (Bax: 2. 433).

══════ ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■ lЖЭЪtХnХn Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХnЪ gЪlХncЪ, mЧvcud Ъlyazma kataloqlarШna ЪsasЪn demЪk olar kХ, dЖnyanШn ЪksЪr muzey vЪ kХtabxanalarШnda ЪsЪrХn Вox sayda qЪdХm vЪ dЪyЪrlХ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХ mЖhafХzЪ edХlХr.

══════ MЪqalЪnХn hЪcmХnХ nЪzЪrЪ alШb, burada lЖЭЪtХn bЪzХ qЪdХm vЪ dЪyЪrlХ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХnХn elmХ-paleoqrafХk tЪsvХrХnХ vermЪyХ mЪqsЪdЪuyЭun saydШq.

══════ хlk nЧvbЪdЪ lЖЭЪtХn AzЪrbaycan MEA MЪhЪmmЪd FЖzulХ adШna ъlyaz╜malar хnstХtutunda mЖhafХzЪ olunan ХkХ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХ haqqШnda mЪlumat verЪcЪyХk (Bax: 3. 216). Bunlar aЬaЭШdakШlardan ХbarЪtdХr:

══════ 1) PaleoqrafХk xЖsusХyyЪtlЪrХnЪ gЧrЪ XVшш ЪsrЪ aХd olan vЪ kallХqrafХk nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ yazШlmШЬ bХrХncХ nЖsxЪ C-493 ЬХfrlХdХr. ъlyazmanШn kaЭШzШ noxudu rЪnglХ ьЪrq kaЭШzШdШr. SЪtХrlЪr ХkХ ЪdЪd qШrmШzШ vЪ bХr ЪdЪd gЧy rЪnglХ xЪtlЪ haЬХyЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. BaЬlШqlar vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. HaЬХyЪdЪ mЪtndЪ buraxШlmШЬ sЧz vЪ ХfadЪlЪr verХlmХЬdХr. ьЪrq vЪ mЖasХr Жsulla nЧmrЪlЪnmХЬ ЪlyazmanШn cХldХ yoxdur. ZamanШn tЪsХrХ nЪtХcЪsХndЪ vЪrЪqlЪrХn kЪnarlarШ bХr qЪdЪr nЪm ВЪkmХЬ vЪ bЪzХ vЪrЪqlЪr cХldХn dayaq hХssЪsХndЪn qopmuЬdur. 344 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn hЪr sЪhХfЪsХndЪ 27 sЪtХr vardШr. NЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ 30,5У19,5 sm-dХr.

═════ 2) 1257 (1841)-cХ ХlЪ mЪxsus olan ХkХncХ nЖsxЪ D-183 ЬХfrlХdХr. ьХkЪstЪ ЖnsЖrlЖ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ yazХlmХЬ ЪlyazmanШn kaЭШzШ ХncЪ, yaxЬШ aЬШlanmШЬ sarШmtШl rЪnglХ ьЪrq ХstehsalШdШr. NЖsxЪ qШrmШzШ vЪ qara mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬ ЪnЪnЪvХ ⌠BХs╜mХllahХr-rЪhmanХr-rЪhХm■ ХfadЪsХ ХlЪ baЬlayШr. Burada lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ, baЬlШq vЪ yarШm╜baЬlШqlar qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. ьЪrq vЪ mЖasХr Жsulla nЧm╜rЪlЪnmХЬ ЪlyazmanШn sonunda mЖЪssХsЪ mЧhЖrЖ vardШr. ъlyazmanШn cХldХ qalШn karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ qara rЪngdЪ dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. CХldХn hЪr ХkХ ЖzЖ 5 mm ЧlВЖsЖndЪ yarpaqЬЪkХllХ basmanaxШЬla haЬХyЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. MЪrkЪzdЪ ХВЪrХsХ yaЬШl rЪngdЪ gЖl-ВХВЪklЪ bЪzЪnmХЬ narШncШ rЪnglХ medalyon vardШr. Onunla ЬaqulХ ХstХqamЪtdЪ ХsЪ ХkХ ЪdЪd kХВХk aВШq-yaЬШl rЪngdЪ yarpaqЬЪkХllХ medalyon basШl╜mШЬdШr. CХldХn ХВЪrХ tЪrЪfХ ХsЪ zoЭalШ rЪngdЪ dЪrХ ХlЪ ЖzlЪnmХЬdХr. 438 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 21У34 sm-dХr.

══════ ъldЪ etdХyХmХz kataloqlar ХВЪrХsХndЪ lЖЭЪtХn Ъn Вox Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХ gЧr╜kЪmlХ хran alХmХ ъhmЪd MЖnzЪvХnХn dЖnyanШn mЖxtЪlХf muzey vЪ kХtabxana╜la╜rШn╜da saxlanШlan farsca Ъlyazmalar ЪsasШnda tЪrtХb etdХyХ kataloqunda yer al╜mШЬ╜dШr. LЖЭЪtХn 49 Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХ haqqШnda mЖxtЪsЪr mЪlumat verЪn mЖЪllХf onlarШ tarХxХlХk baxШmШndan Ъn qЪdХm nЖsxЪdЪn baЬlayaraq aЬaЭШdakШ kХmХ sШralamШЬdШr1 (8. 1922-24):

══════ 1) NЪvvab mЪdrЪsЪsХ: nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪ aftoqraf hesab olunur. TarХxХ gЧstЪrХlmЪmХЬ nЖsxЪ ⌠BЖrhanХ-qateyЪ ЪlavЪlЪr■dХr (⌠MolhЪqat-e Borhan-e qate■). BaЬlanЭШcШnda doqquz bЧlmЪ ⌠fayede vardШr.

══════ 2) Tehran, MХllХ: Bu nЖsxЪ 1063 (1652/53)-cЖ ХldЪ (ЪsЪr tamamlanandan bХr Хl sonra) HeydЪrabadda ъbdЖl HЖseyn b. Abdullah tЪrЪfХndЪn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. NЖsxЪ 1082 sЪhХfЪ, 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. BaЬlШЭШ nЖmunЪdЪkХ kХmХdХr.

══════ 3) KЪlkЖttЪ2: ъsЪr tamamlanandan 9 Хl sonra, yЪnХ 1081 (1670)-cХ ХldЪ MЪhЪmmЪd HaЬШm KЪЬmХrХ tЪrЪfХndЪn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

══════ ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■ lЖЭЪtХnХn Ъn qЪdХm Вap nЖsxЪsХ KЪlkЖttЪ ВapШ hesab edХlХr. Bu Вap nЖsxЪsХ 1813-23-cЖ ХllЪr HХndХstan hakХmХ olmuЬ Lord HestengХn baЬВШlШЭШ vЪ elm adamШ SeyХd KЪrЪm HЖseyn Ъl-HЖseynХ BelgeramХnХn mЖqЪddХmЪsХ ХlЪ mХladХ 1818-cХ ХlХn Хyul ayШnda (hХcrХ 1234) tamamlanmШЬdШr (Bax: 5. 124).

══════ 4) Tehran: MЪhЪmmЪd MЧhsЖn 1082-cХ ХlХn rЪbХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnШn 1-dЪ (8.07.1671) nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. 525 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 33 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

══════ 5) MЪЬhЪd, ъbdЖl HЪmХd MЧvlЪvХ: MЪhЪmmЪd Saleh QumХ tЪrЪfХndЪn хsfahanda 1089-cu ХlХn cЪmadХЖlaxХr ayШnda (1678, Хyul) kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

══════ 6) MЪlek*: NЖsxЪ 1096-cШ ХlХn rЪbХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnШn 15-dЪ (19.02.1685) MЖrtЪza Qulu ъfЬar b. MЪhЪmmЪd YusХf tЪrЪfХndЪn qara mЖrЪkkЪb vЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlЖb. 501 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn cХldХ xШna rЪnglХ kartonun ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ tumac dЪrХ ХlЪ ЖzlЪnmХЬdХr (Bax: 7. 122).

══════ 7) Tehran, Dehxoda: Xш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olan nЖsxЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖ╜rЖlmЖЬdЖr.

══════ 8) Tehran, MХllХ: 1126 (1714)-cШ ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlЖb. BaЬlanЭШcШ nЖmunЪdЪ olduЭu kХmХdХr.

══════ 9) BrХtanХya muzeyХ*: XЪttХ hХnd ЬХkЪstЪ nЪstЪlХqХdХr. 1129-cu ХlХn cЪma╜dХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnda (1717, aprel) kЧВЖrЖlЪn vЪ 303 sЪhХfЪdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn hЪr sЪhХfЪsХndЪ21 sЪtХr vardШr. чlВЖsЖ 11 ¾ Хn.×8 Хn.-dХr (Bax: 7. 124).

══════ 10) BrХtanХya muzeyХ*: 1135-cХ ХlХn ramazan ayШnda (1722, Хyun) nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. 11 ½ Хn.×7 Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ nЖsxЪ 735 sЪhХfЪ, 19 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr (Bax: 7. 124).

══════ 11) QahХrЪ, DarЖl-kЖtub: 1141 (1728-29)-cХ ХldЪ tЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪ ХkХ hХssЪdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. NЖsxЪnХn ЪvvЪlХ nЖmunЪdЪ olduЭu kХmХdХr. ш hХssЪ 228 vЪrЪq, hЪr sЪhХfЪ dЪ 27 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. SЪtХrlЪrХn sayШ mЖxtЪlХf olan шш hХssЪdЪ ХsЪ 290 vЪrЪq vardШr (Bax: 6. 38).

══════ 12) QahХrЪ, DarЖl-kЖtub: QasШmzadЪ kХmХ mЪЬhur olan MЪhЪmmЪd tЪrЪ╜fХndЪn 1156 (1744/45)-cШ ХldЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. ъvvЪlХ nЖmunЪdЪ olduЭu kХmХdХr. NЖsxЪ cХldlЪnmХЬdХr. 522 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 33 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 13×30 sm-dХr (Bax: 6. 38).

══════ 13)QahХrЪ, DarЖl-kЖtub: 1157 (1145/46)-cХ ХldЪ tЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪnХn ЪvvЪlХ nЖmunЪdЪkХ kХmХdХr. BЪzЪklХ sЪrlЧvhЪyЪ malХk olan nЖsxЪnХn sЪtХrlЪrХnХn sayШ 33-dЖr (Bax: 6. 38)

══════ 14) MЪclХs: KatХbХ OsmanlШ mЪktЪblЪrХndЪn bХrХnХn mЖЪllХmХ olan LЖtfullah ъfЪndХzadЪ kХmХ mЪЬhur olan MЪhЪmmЪd SЪХdullahdШr. 1179 (1765/66)-cu ХldЪ kЧВЖrЖlЪn vЪ bЪzЪklХ sЪrlЧvhЪyЪ malХk olan nЖsxЪ 529 vЪrЪq, hЪr sЪhХfЪ dЪ 31 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

══════ 15) MЪlek*: Molla HacШ AЭa qara mЖrЪkkЪb vЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ 1195-cХ ХlХn zХqЪdЪ ayШnШn 25-dЪ bazar ertЪsХ gЖnЖ (12.11.1781) Mazandaranda MХrzЪ ъlЪk╜bЪ╜rХn xahХЬХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. Burada lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. 453 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 15 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ xШ╜na rЪnglХ tumac dЪrХ ХlЪ ЖzlЪnmХЬdХr (Bax: 7. 121).

══════ 16) Harvard, HЧten: Xшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olub nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. 566 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 31 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn sЪrlЧvhЪsХ bЪzЪklХdХr.

═════════ 17) BrХtanХya muzeyХ: MХladХ tarХxlЪ XVшш ЪsrdЪ kЧВЖrЖldЖyЖ ehtХmal olunan nЖsxЪnХnxЪttХ nЪstЪlХqdХr. SЪhХfЪlЪrХn sayШ 866, sЪtХrsayШ ХsЪ 21-dХr. чlВЖsЖ 10Хn.× 6 ½ Хn.-dХr (Bax: 7. 123).

18) Tehran, Dehxoda: Xшш-Xшшш ЪsrlЪrЪ mЪxsus olan vЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪnХn sЪrlЧvhЪsХ bЪzЪklХdХr.

19) хlahХyyat: 502 vЪrЪq, 24 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan vЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪ Xшш-Xшшш ЪsrlЪrЪ mЪxsusdur.

20) MЪclХs, TЪbatЪbaХ: 1203-cЖ Хl rЪcЪb ayШnda (1789, mart) sЪlХqЪlХ nЪsxlЪ kЧВЖrЖlЪn nЖsxЪ 1000 sЪhХfЪ vЪ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

21) SepЪhsalar*: SeyХd Mahmud b. YusХf 1205 (1790/91)-cХ ХldЪ Avropa kaЭШzШna kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. SЪrlЧvhЪyЪ malХk olan nЖsxЪnХn Хlk sЪhХfЪlЪrХ qШzШlШ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. 326 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 41 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan olan nЖs╜xЪnХncХldХ bЪzЪklХ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. чlВЖsЖ 21,5×38 sm-dХr (Bax: 7. 120).

22) RezЪvХ: 1210 (1795/96)-cu ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlЖb. HЪcmХ 555 vЪrЪq, 23 sЪtХrdХr.

23) DaneЬqah: ъbdЖl MЪcХd ъЬayХ KЪЬmХrХ 1211-cХ Хl sЪfЪr ayШnШn 1-dЪ (6. 07.1796) nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. ⌠SХn■ hЪrfХnЪ kХmХ mЧvcud olan nЖsxЪnХn hЪcmХ 384 vЪrЪq, 21 sЪtХrdХr.

24) Tehran, ъllamЪ QЪzvХnХ: ⌠Tehran, MХllХ 18240■ nЖsxЪsХnХ kЧВЖrЪn MЪ╜hЪm╜mЪd MehdХ b. MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ tЪrЪfХndЪn 1224-cЖ Хl zХqЪdЪ ayШnШn 5-dЪ (12. 12.1809) kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

25) MЪclХs: 1226 (1811)-cШ ХlЪ mЪxsusdur. MЖqЪddХmЪ vЪ шV fЪsХldЪn (qoftar) bЪzХ hХssЪlЪr dЖЬmЖЬ nЖsxЪ bХr cЖmlЪdЪn sonra ⌠sХn■ hЪrfХ ХlЪ baЬlayШr. 364 vЪrЪq vЪ 20 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

26) Tehran, MХllХ: MЪhЪmmЪd MehdХ b. MehdХ ъlХ HЖseyn 1227-cХ Хl rЪbХ╜Ж╜laxХr ayШnda ВЪrЬЪnbЪ axЬamШ (1812, aprel) nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. BaЬ╜lШ╜ЭШ nЖmunЪdЪ olduЭu kХmХdХr. ъllamЪ QЪzvХnХnХn qeydlЪrХ vardШr.

27) SepЪhsalar*: 1227 (1812)-cХ ХldЪ ъbdЖl HЖseyn хsfahanХ tЪrЪfХndЪn su nХЬanlШ Avropa kaЭШzШna nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪ qШrmШzШ, mavХ vЪ qШzШlШ rЪnglЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. Lak cХldlХ nЖsxЪnХn vЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 473, sЪtХrlЪrХ╜nХn╜kХ ХsЪ 25 olub, ЧlВЖsЖ 20,5×30 sm-dХr (Bax: 7. 120).

28) SepЪhsalar*: 1234 (1818/19)-cЖ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШr╜mШzШ cЧvhЪrlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪnХn katХbХ mЪlum deyХl. Su nХЬanlШ Avropa ka╜ЭШ╜zШna yazШlmШЬ vЪ 21,5×30 sm ЧlВЖlЖ nЖsxЪnХnvЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 517, sЪtХrlЪrХn╜kХ ХsЪ 25-dХr (Bax: 7. 120).

29) RezЪvХ*: 1237 (1821/22)-cХ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪnХn katХbХ MЪhЪmmЪd NЪbХ b. AЭa MЧhsЖndЖr. QШrmШzШ, qШzШlШ vЪ mavХ rЪnglХ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪr╜ВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬ nЖsxЪnХn sЪrlЧvhЪsХ ХncЪ zЧvqlЪ ХЬlЪnmХЬdХr. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШ╜zШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. VЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 376, sЪtХrlЪrХnkХ ХsЪ 26-dХr. чlВЖsЖ 20×30 sm-dХr (Bax: 7. 123).

30) MЪclХs: MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ b. хsmayШl 1238 (1822/23)-cХ ХldЪ хsfahanШn ъh╜mЪdabad mЪhЪllЪsХndЪ sЪlХqЪlХ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. 338 vЪrЪq, 27 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

31) Tehran, AЭa YЪЭma CЪndegХ*: MЪЬhur ЬaХr ъbu HЪsЪn YЪЭma CЪn╜de╜gХ╜nХn nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrdЖyЖ nЖsxЪ sonralar oЭlu AЭa HЪbХb YЪЭmayХyЪ Вat╜mШЬdШr. ьaХr 1240 (1824/25)-cШ ХldЪ KaЬanda kЧВЖrmЪyЪ baЬladШЭШ nЖsxЪnХhЪmХn ЬЪhЪrdЪ dЪ tamamlamШЬdШr. Bu nЖsxЪnХn lЖЭЪtХn dХgЪr Ъlyazma vЪ Вap nЖsxЪlЪrХ ХlЪ dЪ fЪrqХ vardШr (Bax: 7. 122-23).

32) SepЪhsalar*: NЖsxЪ 1242(1826)-cХ ХldЪ MЪhЪmmЪd MehdХ b. MЪhЪm╜mЪd ъlХ tЪrЪfХndЪn su nХЬanlШ Avropa kaЭШzШna nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. SЪr╜lЧvhЪyЪ malХk olan nЖsxЪnХn Хlk sЪhХfЪlЪrХ qШzШlШ vЪ mavХ rЪnglХ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪr╜ВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdХr. CХldХ tumac dЪrХdЪn olan nЖsxЪ 357 vЪrЪq, 26 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. чlВЖsЖ 20×30 sm-dХr (Bax: 7. 120).

33) DaneЬqah: Bu nЖsxЪ 1234-cЖ Хl rЪbХЖlaxХr ayШnШn 15-dЪ (6.10.1827) kЧВЖrЖlЖb, 414 vЪrЪq vЪ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

34) Tehran, doktor MХftah: MХrzЪ baba NurХ 1245-cХ Хl ВЪrЬЪnbЪ axЬamШ ramazan ayШnШn 27-sХ (23.3.1829) SХmnanda nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. HaЬХyЪdЪ ЪlavЪ qeydlЪr dЪ vardШr.

35) Tehran, muzey: 1247 (1831)-cХ ХlЪ mЪxsus olan bu nЖsxЪ ъbu TalХb tЪrЪfХndЪn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

36) MЪЬhЪd, ъbdЖl HЪmХd MЧvlЪvХ: 1248 (1832)-cХ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. SЪrlЧvhЪsХ bЪzЪklХdХr.

37) SepЪhsalar*: NЖsxЪ 1252 (1836/37)-cХ ХldЪ MХrzЪ Baba Хbn MХrzЪ MЪhЪmmЪd tЪrЪfХndЪn Avropa kaЭШzШna nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. 372 vЪrЪq, 26 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan kХtabШn cХldХ basmanaxШЬlШ tumac dЪrХdХr. чlВЖsЖ 22×34,5 sm-dХr (Bax: 7. 121).

38) MЪclХs: Bu nusxЪ 1255 (1839)-cХ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. 500 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn sЪrlЧvhЪsХ bЪzЪklХdХr.

39) DaneЬqah: Feyzullah tЪrЪfХndЪn nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ 1255-cХ Хl cЪmadХЖlaxХr ayШnШn 20-sХ (31.08.1839) ВЪrЬЪnbЪ axЬamШnda kЧВЖrЖlЖb. SЪrlЧvhЪsХ bЪzЪklХdХr.

40) хlahХyyat: Xшшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olub vЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ yazШlmШЬ nЖsxЪnХn sonu MohbЪlu Yekanlu tЪrЪfХndЪn 1269-cu Хl cЪmadХЖlaxХr ayШnШn 9-da (20.03.1853) yenХdЪn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

41) SepЪhsalar*: Murad ъlХ QomЬeyХ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ 1284 (1867/68)-cЖ ХldЪ mХ╜la╜dХ tarХxХ ХlЪ 1818-cХ ХldЪ yazШlmШЬ KЪlkЖttЪ ВapШ ЖzЪrХndЪn MХrzЪ ъlХ ъkbЪrХn xahХЬХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. SЪrlЧvhЪyЪ malХk nЖsxЪnХn sЪhХfЪlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya, qШzШlШ vЪ mavХ rЪnglХ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬ, hЪmВХnХn lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ dЪ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШl╜mШЬdШr. KaЭШzШ su nХЬanlШ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr. BasmanaxШЬlШ cХldЪ malХk olan nЖsxЪ 377 vЪrЪq, 31 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. чlВЖsЖ 22×31,5 sm-dХr (Bax: 7. 121).

42) MЪclХs: Xшшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olan cЪmadХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnda nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪ 616 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ24 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

43) MЪclХs: NЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ cЪmadХЖlaxХr ayШnda kЧВЖrЖlЪn nЖsxЪ 606 vЪrЪq, 24 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

44) MЪclХs: Xшшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olan vЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪnХn bЪzЪklХ sЪrlЧvhЪsХ vardШr. VЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 660, sЪtХrlЪrХnkХ ХsЪ 30-dЖr.

45) DaneЬqah: Xшшш ЪsrЪ aХd olub nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

46) Tehran, Dehxoda: Xшшш-XшV ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olub nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr.

47) RezЪvХ*: 1237 (1821/22)-cХ ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪdЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. NaxШЬlШ sЪrlЧvhЪlХ nЖsxЪ qШrmШzШ, qШzШlШ vЪma╜vХ rЪnglХ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. 376 vЪrЪq, 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan, 20×30 sm ЧlВЖlЖ kХtab 1337 (1918/19)-cХ ХldЪ MЖrtЪza Quluxan tЪrЪfХndЪn vЪqf olun╜muЬdur (Bax: 7. 123).

48) HХndХstan, Rampur, Rza kХtabxanasШ: Burada altШ ЪdЪd nЖsxЪ mЖhafХzЪ olunur.

49) BrХtanХya mЖzeyХ*: 843 sЪhХfЪ, 14 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn tarХxХ qeyd olunmamШЬdШr. VЪrЪqlЪrШn haЬХyЪsХndЪ John Haddon HХndley adlШ ЬЪxsХn xЪttХ ХlЪ qeydlЪr vardШr. чlВЖsЖ 9 Хn.×7 Хn.-dХr (Bax: 7. 124).

MХllХ kХtabxanaya mЪxsus Ъlyazmalar kataloqunun bХr neВЪ cХldХndЪ lЖЭЪtХn aЬaЭШdakШ nЖsxЪlЪrХnЪ rast gЪlХrХk. Bu kataloqun шшш cХldХndЪ dЧrd nЖsxЪ Чz ЪksХnХ tapmШЬdШr. Bunlara aЬaЭШdakШlar daxШldШr (9. 132, 151, 166, 325-26):

1) NЖsxЪ h.q. 1022-cХ Хl rЪcЪb ayШnШn 28-dЪ (14.09.1613) MЪhЪmmЪd ъkrЪm tЪrЪfХndЪn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr (TarХx nЖsxЪdЪ belЪ gЧstЪrХlХb. ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■nХn h.q. 1062 (1652)-cХ ХldЪ yazШldШЭШnШ nЪzЪrЪ alsaq, ЪsЪrХn yazШlma tarХxХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЪ tarХxХ uyЭun gЪlmХr. вox gЖman kХ, nЖsxЪdЪ tarХx h.q. 1202 (1787/88)-cХ Хl kХmХ gЧstЪ╜rХl╜mЪ╜lХy╜dХ). SЪrlЧvhЪ qШzШlШ, mavХ, yaЬШl vЪ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ bЪzЪdХlmХЬdХr. ш vЪ шш sЪhХfЪ╜lЪr╜dЪ sЪtХrlЪr arasШ zЪrlЪ bЪzЪnmХЬ nЖsxЪdЪ fЪsХllЪr vЪ lЖЭЪt vahШdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. Bu nЖsxЪdЪ ХkХ ВЪrВХvЪ ВЪkХlmХЬdХr. SЪtХrlЪrХ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alan ш ВЪrВХvЪ qШ╜zШ╜lШ, qara, qШrmШzШ vЪ mavХ rЪnglЪrlЪ, шш xarХcХ ВЪrВХvЪ ХsЪ mavХ rЪnglЪ ВЪkХlmХЬdХr. ъlyaz╜manШn cХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ bЪzЪklХ, medalyonlu qШrmШzШ rЪnglХ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. CХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 36×23 sm-dХr. RЪnglХ Avropa kaЭШzШna yazШlmШЬ nЖsxЪ 587 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 21 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. чlВЖsЖ 21,5×12 sm-dХr.

2) ъlyazma h.q. 1063-cЖ Хl bazar gЖnЖ ЬЪvval ayШnШn 28-dЪ (22.09.1652) Hey╜dЪr╜abadШn Dekon ЬЪhЪrХndЪ ъbdЖl HЖseyn Abdullah tЪrЪfХndЪn nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧ╜ВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. SЪrlЧvhЪ qШzШlШ, mavХ, qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ bЪzЪnmХЬ, fЪsХllЪr vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХd╜lЪrХ dЪ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. SЪtХrlЪr mavХ rЪnglХ xЪtlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШn╜mШЬ╜dШr. CХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ narШncШ vЪ aВШq-narШncШ rЪngdЪ gЖl-ВХВЪklЪ bЪzЪn╜mХЬ qШrmШzШ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. DЧvlЪtabadХyЪ mЪxsus kaЭШza kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪ 541 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 24 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olub, ЧlВЖsЖ 20×10 sm-dХr.

3) H.q. 1126 (1714)-cШ ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. FЪsХllЪr vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ verХlmХЬdХr. Bu nЖsxЪdЪ dЪ ХkХ cЪdvЪl vardШr. QШzШlШ vЪ qara rЪnglЪrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ш cЪdvЪllЪ sЪtХrlЪr haЬХyЪyЪ alШnmШЬ, шш xarХcХ cЪdvЪl ХsЪ qШrmШzШ rЪnglЪ ВЪkХlmХЬdХr. Karton ЖzЪrХnЪ qШrmШzШ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХ ВЪkХlmХЬ cХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 26×14 sm-dХr. Avropa vЪrЪqХnЪ yazШlmШЬ, 712 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 24 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 18,5×8 sm-dХr.

4) MЪhЪmmЪd MehdХ b. MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ HЖseynХ tЪrЪfХndЪn h.q. 1227 (1812)-cХ ХldЪ ЬХkЪstЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ Ъlyazmada lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. Karton ЖzЪrХnЪ narШncШ vЪ aВШq-narШncШ rЪngdЪ basmanaxШЬlШ qШrmШzШ tumac dЪrХ ВЪkХlmХЬ cХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 29×20,5 sm-dХr. 412 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn kaЭШzШ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr. чlВЖsЖ 21×12,5 sm-dХr.

Kataloqun шV cХldХndЪ ХkХ nЖsxЪ verХlmХЬdХr (10. 218, 232):

1) H.q. 1237 (1821/22)-cХ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. FЪsХl vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬ ЪlyazmanШn cХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ narШncШ vЪ aВШq-narШncШ rЪngdЪ basmanaxШЬlШ qШrmШzШ tumac dЪrХdЪnХbarЪtdХr. CХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 31×21 sm-dХr. KaЭШzШ aВШq-yaЬХl rЪnglХ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr. 513 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 23 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 21×12 sm-dХr.

2) H.q. 1331 (1912/13)-cХ ХldЪ MЪhЪmmЪd HadХ KЪlarsЪnanХ tЪrЪfХndЪn nЪs╜tЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. FЪsХllЪr vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШl╜mШЬ╜dШr. SЪtХrlЪr qШrmШzШ vЪ mavХ rЪngdЪ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. шш xarХcХ cЪdvЪl ХsЪ qШrmШzШ rЪngdЪdХr. Karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ narШncШ vЪ aВШq-narШncШ rЪngdЪ basma╜na╜xШЬlШ qШrmШzШ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪt olan cХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 30×20 sm-dХr. Avropa kaЭШzШna yazШlmШЬ vЪ 436 vЪrЪq, 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 21,5×13 sm-dХr.

HЪmХn kataloqun V cХldХndЪ lЖЭЪtХn aЬaЭШdakШ ХkХ nЖsxЪsХnХn tЪsvХrХ verХlmХЬdХr (11. 102, 107

BХrХncХ nЖsxЪ MХrzЪxan adШ ХlЪ mЪЬhur olan MЪhЪmmЪd TahХr b. Abdullah MЧvlЪvХ HЖseynХЬ-ЬЪhХr tЪrЪfХndЪn 1088 (1677/78)-cХ ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖl╜mЖЬ╜dЖr. FЪsХllЪr qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬ, sЪtХrlЪr qШzШlШ vЪ qara rЪnglЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШn╜mШЬdШr. ъlyazmanШn tЖnd-yaЬШl, narШncШ vЪ aВШq-narШncШ rЪngdЪ basmanaxШЬlШ cХldХ lak tЪbЪqЪsХ ХlЪ ЧrtЖlmЖЬdЖr. CХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 29,5×16,5 sm-dХr. Avropa kaЭШzШna ya╜zШl╜mШЬ, 587 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 29 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 20×9 sm-dХr.

хkХncХ nЖsxЪ h.q. 1096 (1684/85)-cШ ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ Ъlyazmada sЪrlЧvhЪ qШrmШzШ, qШzШlШ vЪ mavХ rЪnglХ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. CХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ qШzШlШ rЪngdЪ gЖl-ВХВЪklХ basmanaxШЬlШ qШrmШzШ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. CХldХn ЧlcЖsЖ 24×15,5 sm-dХr. DЧvlЪtabadХyЪ mЪxsus olan nЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ 18×10,5 sm-dХr.

YuxarШda adШnШ ВЪkdХyХmХz kataloqun Vш cХldХndЪ lЖЭЪtХn ХkХ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХnХn elmХ-paleoqrafХk tЪsvХrХ verХlmХЬdХr (12. 34-35, 204-205).

1) NЖsxЪ h.q. 1232 (1816/17)-cХ ХldЪ QЪzvХnlХ olmasШ ehtХmal edХlЪn ustad MЪhЪmmЪd HЖseynХn oЭlu NЪcЪfqulu tЪrЪfХndЪn nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧcЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. FЪsХllЪr vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. ъrЪb dХlХndЪkХ sЧzlЪrХn, ЬЪxs adlarШ vЪ kХtabШn adШnШn ЖstЖndЪ qШrmШzШ xЪtt ВЪkХlmХЬdХr. CХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ qara tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. CХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 30×20,5 sm-dХr. Avropa ХstehsallШ kaЭШza yazШlmШЬ, 438 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlcЖsЖ 21,5×13 sm -dХr.

2) H.q. 1240 (1824/25)-cШ ХlЪ mЪxsus olan bu nЖsxЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖ╜rЖlmЖЬdЖr. FЪsХllЪr vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ mЖrЪkkЪblЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. Karton ЖzЪ╜rХ╜nЪ narШncШ vЪ aВШq-narШncШ rЪngdЪ basmanaxШЬШ olan qШrmШzШ tumac dЪrХ ВЪkХl╜mХЬ cХldХn ЧlВЖsЖ 30,5×20 sm-dХr. KaЭШzШ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr. ъlyazma 376 vЪrЪq, 29 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. чlВЖsЖ 21,5×12 sm-dХr.

MХllХ ьura MЪclХsХnХn kХtabxanasШna mЪxsus kataloqun bХr neВЪ cХldХndЪ lЖЭЪtХn yeddХ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХnХn elmХ-paleoqrafХk tЪsvХrХ verХlmХЬdХr. Bunlar aЬaЭШdakШlardan ХbarЪtdХr:

Kataloqun шш cХldХndЪ yalnШz bХr nЖsxЪ Чz ЪksХnХ tapmШЬdШr (13. 271).

Bu nЖsxЪ 1255 (1839/40)-cХ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. ъlyaz╜manШn ЪvvЪlХndЪ sЪrlЧvhЪ verХlmХЬdХr. BХrХncХ ХkХ sЪhХfЪnХn ЪvvЪlХnХn haЬХyЪsХ mavХ rЪngЪ Вalan ornamentlЪrlЪ vЪ qШzШl suyu ХlЪ bЪzЪdХlmХЬdХr. 500 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 21 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 19×30 sm-dХr.

Kataloqun шшш cХldХndЪ ЖВ nЖsxЪ verХlmХЬdХr (14. 82, 83):

1) KХtabШn sonundakШ rЪqЪmЪ vЪ ш sЪhХfЪnХn arxasШndakШ qeydЪ ЪsasЪn, bu nЖs╜xЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ 1179 (1756/66)-cu ХldЪ OsmanlШ mЪktЪblЪrХndЪn bХrХnХn mЖЪllХmХ LЖtfullah ъfЪndХzadЪ kХmХ mЪЬhur olan MЪhЪmmЪd SЪХdullah tЪrЪfХndЪn kЧВЖrЖl╜mЖЬdЖr. HЪmВХnХn burada ХkХ tЖrkЪsХllХ alХmХn ХkХ qeydХ dЪ vardШr. Onlardan bХrХnХn bХr hХssЪsХ mЪhv olmuЬdur. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ vЪ baЬlШqlar qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. BХr sЪrlЧvhЪsХ vardШr. BЖtЖn sЪhХfЪlЪr qШzШlШ vЪ mavХ rЪngdЪ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШn╜mШЬdШr. CХldХ medalyonlu dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. SЪmЪrqЪnd kaЭШzШna yazШlmШЬ Ъlyaz╜manШn vЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 529, sЪtХrlЪrХnХnkХ ХsЪ 31-dХr. UzunluЭu 30, enХ 17sm-dХr.

2) NЖsxЪ 1237 (1821/22)-cХ ХldЪ хsfahanШn ъhmЪdabad mЪhЪllЪsХndЪ yerlЪ╜ЬЪn ElВХ mЪdrЪsЪsХndЪ MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ b. хsmayШl tЪrЪfХndЪn sЪlХqЪlХ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ vЪ bЪzХ baЬlШglarШn yazШlmasШnda qШrmШzШ boya vЪ mavХ rЪngdЪn ХstХfadЪ olunmuЬ, fЪsХllЪr (qoftar) ХsЪ qШzШlШ rЪngdЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. ъvvЪldЪ bХr sЪrlЧvhЪ vardШr. BХrХncХ ХkХ sЪhХfЪnХn haЬХyЪsХ qШzШlШ rЪngdЪ bЪzЪn╜mХЬ╜dХr. DХgЪr sЪhХfЪlЪr ХsЪ qШzШlШ rЪngdЪ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. BХrХncХ sЪhХfЪnХn arxasШnda MХrzЪ SadШq adlШ bХr nЪfЪrХn ЧvladШnШn anadan olmasШnШn ⌠maddeyХ-tarХxХ■ bХr neВЪ beytlЪ verХlmХЬdХr. HЪmcХnХn ЪlavЪ qeydlЪr dЪ vardШr. CХldХ ЪtrafШ tumac dЪrХ olan meЬХndЪn ХbarЪtdХr. TХrmЪ kaЭШza yazШlmШЬ ЪlyazmanШn vЪrЪq╜lЪrХnХn sayШ 338, sЪtХrlЪrХnХnkХ ХsЪ 27-dХr. UzunluЭu 22,5, enХ ХsЪ 19 sm-dХr.

3) Bu nЖsxЪ 1226 (1811)-cХ ХldЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. MЖqЪddХmЪ vЪ kХtabШn ЪvvЪlХndЪn bЪzХ hХssЪlЪr dЖЬmЖЬdЖr (⌠SХn■ hЪrfХ ХlЪ baЬlayan V fЪslХn ЪvvЪlХndЪn sonunadЪk). ъldЪ olan vЪrЪqХn ЪvvЪlХndЪkХ bХr qeyd mЪhv olmuЬdur. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ cЧvhЪrlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. CХldХ Ьaqren (yumЬaq dЪrХ, meЬХn) dЪrХdХr. KaЭШzШ mavХ rЪnglХ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr. ъlyazmanШn hЪr sЪhХfЪsХndЪ 20 sЪtХr vardШr, vЪrЪqlЪrХn sayШ 364-dЖr. UzunluЭu 32,5, enХ 21 sm-dХr.

XVшш cХlddЪ ХsЪ lЖЭЪtХn ЖВ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХnХn elmХ-paleoqrafХk tЪsvХrХ verХlmХЬdХr (15. 47, 233).

1) Bu nЖsxЪ Xшшш ЪsrХn ortalarШna mЪxsus olub nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ vЪ baЬlШqlar qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. BЪzХ vЪrЪqlЪrХn kЪnarlarШ bЪrpa olunmuЬdur. ъvvЪlХ mЧvcud olan bu nЖsxЪ ⌠ЯЮПЬЪЙ■ sЧzЖnЖn ХzahШnШn bХr hХssЪsХ ХlЪ tamamlanШr. CХldХ sadЪ medalyonlu tЖnd-qЪhvЪyХ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. 616 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 24 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ 31×21 sm-dХr. KaЭШzШ aЭ ranglХ su nХЬanlШ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr.

2) ъlyazma yuxarШdakШ nЖsxЪnХn davamШ olub nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ vЪ baЬlШqlar qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. VЪrЪqlЪrХn bЪzХlЪrХnХn kЪ╜nar╜╜╜╜╜larШ bЪrpa olunmuЬ vЪ sЪhХfЪlЪrХn ЪtrafШ bХr az nЪm lЪkЪsХ ВЪkmХЬdХr. Bu nЖsxЪ ⌠ЯЮПЬЪЙ■ sЧzЖnЖn ХzahШnШn davamШ ХlЪ baЬlayШr. NЖsxЪ 31×20 sm ЧlВЖsЖndЪdХr. CХldХ sa╜╜dЪ medalyonlu tЖnd-qЪhvЪyХ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. KaЭШzШ aЭ rЪnglХ su nХЬanlШ Avropa ХstehsallШ olan ЪlyazmanШn vЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 606, sЪtХrlЪrХnХnkХ ХsЪ 24-dЖr.

3) Xшшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olub nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. BХrХncХ sЪhХfЪdЪ qШzШl suyu ХlЪ ХЬlЪnmХЬ sЪrlЧvhЪ vardШr. BХrХncХ vЪ ХkХncХ sЪhХfЪlЪrХn haЬХyЪsХ qШzШlШ rЪngdЪ gЖl-ВХВЪklЪ, sЪtХrlЪrХn arasШ ХsЪ zЪrlЪ bЪzЪdХlmХЬdХr. BЖtЖn sЪhХfЪlЪr qШzШlШ vЪ ma╜vХ rЪngdЪ xЪtlЪrlЪ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬ, baЬlШqlar vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. CХldХn ЖstЖ vЪ ХВЪrХsХ gЖllЖ-ВХВЪklХ olub lak tЪbЪqЪsХ ХlЪ ЧrtЖlmЖЬdЖr. 660 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 30 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn kaЭШzШAvropa ХstehsallШdШr.

MЪЬhЪdХn dЧrd kХtabxanasШna mЪxsus Ъlyazmalar kataloqunda lЖЭЪtХn dЧrd nЖsxЪsХ haqqШnda mЪlumat verХlmХЬdХr (16. 73):

1) 1254 (1838/39)-cЖ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. BaЬlШqlarШn ya╜zШl╜masШ vЪ ВЪrВХvЪlЪrХn ВЪkХlmЪsХndЪ qШrmШzШ boyadan ХstХfadЪ olunmuЬdur. MЪhЪm╜mЪd SadХq HЖseynХyЪ mЪxsus mЧhЖr vardШr. NЖsxЪnХn cХldХ qЪhvЪyХ rЪngdЪ lak tЪbЪqЪsХ ХlЪ ЧrtЖlmЖЬdЖr. 1256 (1839/40)-cШ ХldЪ bu nЖsxЪ sЪkkХz tЖmЪnЪ alШnmШЬdШr.

2) Bu nЖsxЪnХ HЖseyn BЖrhanШn sХfarХЬХ ХlЪ Musa adlШ bХr ЬЪxs nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. SЪrlЧvhЪ vЪ ВЪrВХvЪlЪr qШzШlШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬ ЪlyazmanШn kaЭШzШ bХtkХ mЪnЬЪlХdХr. MЪhЪmmЪd BaЭШr b. MЪhЪmmЪd TaЭШ MusЪvХnХn ЬЪxsХ mЧhЖrЖ olan nЖsxЪnХn cХldХ medalyonlu qara rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. HЪr sЪhХfЪdЪ 22 sЪtХr vardШr.

3) MЪhЪmmЪd MЧmХn MХrzЪ Baba hЪkХm AЬtХyanХ 1260 (1844)-cШ ХldЪ nЪs╜tЪ╜lХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. BaЬlШqlarШ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬ ЪlyazmanШn hЪr sЪ╜hХfЪsХndЪ 25 sЪtХr vardШr. Su nХЬanlШ kaЭШza kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪnХn cХldХ medalyonlu qara tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

4) 1080 (1669/70)-cШ ХldЪ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ ЪlyazmanШn baЬlШqlarШ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. Bu nЖsxЪ 1346 (1927/28)-cШ ХldЪ HХndХstanda redaktЪ olunmuЬdur. CХldХ medalyonlu qШrmШzШ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. HЪr sЪhХfЪdЪ 27 sЪtХr vardШr.

Tehran UnХversХtetХ, хlahХyyat vЪ хslam elmlЪrХ fakЖltЪsХnХn kХtabxanasШnda ХkХ ЪdЪd Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХ mЖhafХzЪ edХlХr (17. 16):

1) Xшш-Xшшш ЪsrlЪrЪ mЪxsus olub nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. вЪrВХvЪlЪr qШzШlШ vЪ mavХ rЪngdЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ, baЬlШq vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. SЪtХrlЪrХn sayШ 24, ЧlВЖsЖ ХsЪ 22,5×12 sm-dХr. 502 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 27,5×16 sm-dХr. HХnd kaЭШzШna yazШlmШЬ ЪlyazmanШn cХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmХЬ medalyonlu qara tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

2) NЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlЪn nЖsxЪ hХcrХ Xшшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsusdur. 344-cЖ sЪhХ╜fЪ╜dЪn sona qЪdЪr 1269-cu Хl cЪmadХЖlaxХr ayШnШn 9-u (20.3.1853) MohbЪlu Yekanlu tЪrЪfХndЪn yenХdЪn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. SЪtХrlЪrХn ЧlВЖsЖ 14,5×6,5 sm olub, sayШ 17-dХr. 401 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ 21×13 sm-dХr. Avropa vЪrЪqХnЪ yazШlmШЬ nЖs╜xЪnХn cХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ ВЪkХlmШЬ medalyonlu qШrmШzШ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

RЪЬt vЪ HЪmЪdana mЪxsus kХtabxanalarda lЖЭЪtХn ХkХ ЪdЪd Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХ vardШr (18. 14):

1) 1215 (1800/01)-cХ ХldЪ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ ЪlyazmanШn baЬlШqlarШ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. NЖsxЪ 131 sЪhХfЪ, 23 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr. SЪtХrlЪrХn ЧlВЖsЖ 20×11,5 sm, vЪrЪqХn ЧlВЖsЖ 30×21sm-dХr. CХldХ kartondur.

2) 1258-cХ ХlХn zХlhХccЪ ayШnda (1843, yanvar) HЪsЪn b. MЪhЪmmЪd хbrahХm KuhХnХ TЪfrХЬХ хran хraqШnШn valХsХ MЪhЪmmЪd HЪsЪn xanШn tapЬШrШЭШna ЪsasЪn, sЪlХqЪlХ nЪstЪlХqlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. BaЬlШqlar qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlШb. AlЭШ-satqШ cЪdvЪlХ ХlЪ bХrlХkdЪ, ъlХ ъbdЖl RЪsulun xЪttХ vЪ mЧhЖrЖ ХlЪ 1333 (1914/15)-cЖ ХlЪ mЪxsus qeydШ vardШr. Ondan 1352 (1933/34)-cХ ХldЪ ъhmЪdЬahШn mЖЪllХmХ HacШ MХrzЪ MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ MollabaЬШ almШЬdШr. HacШ MХrzЪ ъlХnХn ЬЪxsХ mЧhЖrЖ dЪ vardШr. 883 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ 35×20,5 sm-dХr. SЪtХrlЪrХn ЧlВЖsЖ ХsЪ 24×12,5 sm olub, sayШ 23-dЖr. CХldХ dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

NЪcЪfХ MЪrЪЬХ kХtabxanasШnda lЖЭЪtХn bХr ЪdЪd Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХ mЖhafХzЪ edХlХr (19. 140-41).

MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ b. MЪhЪmmЪd хsmayШl хsfahanХ 1224-cЖ Хl cЖmЪ gЖnЖ rЪbХЖlaxХr ayШnШn 25-dЪ (9.06.1809) nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. BaЬlШqlar vЪ lЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬ, qШzШlШ, qara vЪ mavХ rЪnglХ ВЪrВХvЪyЪ alШnmШЬdШr. BХrХncХ sЪhХfЪdЪ rЪngarЪng sЪrlЧvhЪ mЧvcuddur. BХrХncХ vЪ ХkХncХ sЪhХfЪlЪrХn haЬХyЪsХ gЖl-ВХВЪklЪ, sЪtХrlЪr arasШ ХsЪ zЪrlЪ bЪzЪdХlmХЬdХr. CХldХn Жst tЪrЪfХ qara, ХВ tЪrЪfХ ХsЪ qШrmШzШ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХ ХlЪ ЖzlЪnmШЬdХr. 486 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan ЪlyazmanШn ЧlВЖsЖ 19,5×30 sm-dХr.

Tehran UnХversХtetХnХn mЪrkЪzХ kХtabxanasШnШn kataloqunun ХkХ cХldХndЪ aЬaЭШdakШ nЖsxЪlЪr haqqШnda mЪlumat verХlmХЬdХr (20. 868; 21. 1614):

1) ъbdЖl MЪcХd ъЬayХ KЪЬmХrХ BombeydЪ 1211-cХ Хl sЪfЪr ayШnШn 1-dЪ (6.08. 1796) nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. LЖЭЪt vahХdlЪrХ qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. HЪr sЪhХfЪdЪ 21 sЪtХr vardШr. OnlarШn ЧlВЖsЖ 19×11,5 sm-dХr. 374 vЪrЪqdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ ХsЪ 27×18 sm-dХr. HХnd kaЭШzШna yazШlmШЬ nЖsxЪnХn cХldХ kar╜ton ЖzЪrХnЪ meyvЪ vЪ yarpaqЬЪkХllХ qШzШlШ medalyon basШlmШЬ yaЬШl rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

2) Xшшш ЪsrЪ mЪxsus olub nЪsxlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. BaЬlШqlar qШrmШzШ boya ХlЪ yazШlmШЬdШr. NЖsxЪ 1330 (1911/12)-cu ХlЪ qЪdЪr ъbdЖl HЪmХd Qacara mЪxsus olmuЬdur. SЪtХrlЪrХn sayШ 31, ЧlВЖsЖ 27×13 sm-dХr. жmumХ ЧlcЖsЖ 37×22 sm olan nЖsxЪnХn vЪrЪqlЪrХnХn sayШ 404-dЖr. KaЭШzШ Avropa ХstehsallШdШr. CХldХ karton ЖzЪrХnЪ cЪkХlmХЬ qЪhvЪyХ rЪngdЪ tumac dЪrХdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

QahХrЪ kataloqunda verХlmХЬ dЧrd nЖsxЪdЪn bХrХ yuxarШda qeyd etdХyХmХz ъhmЪd MЖnzЪvХ kataloqunda toplanan lЖЭЪtХn Вox sayda nЖsxЪlЪrХ sШrasШna daxХl edХlmЪmХЬdХr. MЪhЪmmЪd ъmХn Хbn Mustafa tЪrЪfХndЪn adХ nЪsx xЪttХ ХlЪ mЪhЪr╜rЪm ayШnda kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. KЧВЖrЖlmЪ ХlХ qeyd olunmayan vЪ 434 vЪrЪq, 33 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪnХn ЧlВЖsЖ 17×29 sm-dХr (6. 38).

хndХya OfХs kХtabxanasШnШn farsdХllХ Ъlyazmalar kataloqunda lЖЭЪtХn doqquz ЪdЪd Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХ haqqШnda mЪlumat verХlmХЬdХr (5. 1347-49):

1) OxunaqlШ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ bu nЖsxЪ ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■nХn Ъn qЪdХm, Ъn yaxЬШ vЪ Ъn dЪyЪrlХ nЖsxЪlЪrХndЪn bХrХdХr. Bu nЖsxЪ orХjХnal ЪsЪrdЪn kЧВЖ╜rЖl╜mЖЬdЖr. Burada mЖЪllХfХn ХЬХnХ tamamladШqdan sonra ЧzЖnЖn etdХyХ ЪlavЪ╜lЪr dЪ vardШr. FrontХspХsЪ malХk olan vЪ 16 Хn.×9 ¼ Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ nЖsxЪ 526 vЪrЪq, 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

2) NЖsxЪ 1071-cХ Хl mЪhЪrrЪm ayШnШn 16-da (21.09.1660) KЪЬmХrdЪn olan MЪhЪmmЪd HaЬШm tЪrЪfХndЪn oxunaqlШ nЪstЪlХq nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlЖb11 Хn.×6 Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ Ъlyazma 622 vЪrЪq, 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

3) AstarabadlШ MЪhЪmmЪd SadХq b. HadХ ZeynalabХdХn 1081-cХ Хl ЬЪvval ayШnШn 27-dЪ (9.03.1671) HeydЪrabadda nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬdЖr. KatХbХn kЧВЖrdЖklЪrХnХ bХr yerЪ toplayan MЪhЪmmЪd RХda b. MЧvlana CЪfЪr bu ХЬХ 1082-cХ Хl cЪmadХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnШn 8-dЪ (12.09.1671) tamamlamШЬdШr. HЪcmХ 542 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪ 12 Хn.×7 Хn. ЧlВЖsЖndЪdХr.

══════ 4) Bu haЬХyЪdЪ eynХ ЪllЪ yazШlmШЬ Вox sayda vЪ dЪyЪrlХ ЪlavЪlЪrХ olan Ъla nЖs╜xЪdХr. TarХxХ gЧstЪrХlmЪyЪn ЪlyazmanШn 1a sЪhХfЪsХndЪ mЖxtЪlХf ЪlavЪlЪr qeyd olun╜muЬdur. Bu ЪlavЪlЪrХn Ъn qЪdХmХ cЪmadХЖlЪvvЪl ayШnШn 1-Х, MЪhЪmmЪd ьahШn ha╜kХ╜mХyyЪtХnХn 21-cХ ХlХnЪ aХddХr (1152; 1739, 6 avqust). Bu nЖsxЪ ЪvvЪllЪr mr. RХ╜Вard Consona mЪxsus olmuЬdur (1174/1180). OxunaqlШ nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ ЪlyazmanШn bХrХncХ ХkХ sЪhХfЪsХ zЪngХn bЪzЪdХlmХЬdХr. HЪcmХ 534 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 22 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪ 12 ⅛ ×7 Хn. ЧlВЖsЖndЪdХr.

══════ 5) Bu nЖsxЪnХ ьaХq BЖrhanЪddХn AbbasХ 1178-cХ Хl sЪfЪr ayШnШn 20-sХ (19.08.1764) sЪlХqЪsХz nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrmЖЬdЖr. 12Хn.×8 Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ Ъlyazma 483 vЪrЪq vЪ 24-25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

══════ 6) MЖxtЪlХf xЪtlЪr, hЪm nЪstЪlХq, hЪm dЪ ЬХkЪstЪ ХlЪ yazШlmШЬ nЖsxЪnХn tarХxХ 1200-cХ Хl ramazan ayШnШn 19-na (16.07.1786) aХddХr. 14 Хn.×8 ¼ Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ ЪlyazmanШn hЪcmХ 832 vЪrЪq, 19 sЪtХrdХr.

══════ 7) TarХxХ qeyd olunmayan bu Ъlyazma yaxЬШ vЪ dЪqХq nЖsxЪdХr. VЪrЪqlЪrdЪn 229a-nШn yarШsШ, 229b-nХn hamШsШ vЪ 230-un boЬ olmasШna baxmayaraq, mЪtnШn tam ЬЪkХldЪ olduЭu gЧrЖnЖr. 558 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪsХ 19 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan nЖsxЪ 11 ¼ Хn. × 8 ½Хn. ЧlВЖsЖndЪdХr.

══════ 8) KЪlkЖttЪdЪ Murad ъlХ QazХpurХ tЪrЪfХndЪn MЖnЬХ MЪhЪmmЪd Murad ЖВЖn kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ nЖsxЪdЪ tarХx kХmХ ancaq Ьaban ayШnШn 4-Ж gЧstЪrХlmХЬdХr. 9 Хn. ×

5 Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ nЖsxЪnХn xЪttХ nЪstЪlХqdХr. 819 vЪrЪq, 22 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪt olan Ъlyaz╜ma╜nШn sЪhХfЪlЪrХnХn mЖЪyyЪn hХssЪsХ vЪ ya bЖtЧvlЖkdЪ oxunmaz ЬЪklЪ dЖЬmЖЬdЖr.

══════ 9) LЖЭЪtХn dХbaВЪ hХssЪsХndЪn mЖЪyyЪn hХssЪlЪrdХr. Burada fars dХlХnХn qrammatХkasШna aХd bЪzХ mЪlumatlar da vardШr. SЪlХqЪsХz nЪstЪlХq xЪttХ ХlЪ kЧВЖrЖlmЖЬ bu nЖsxЪ sondan naqХs olub, ⌠ЫЮ-ИЕ ЫЪББЪГ■ baЬlШЭШnda tamamlanШr. 10 Хn. × 6 ½ Хn. ЧlВЖlЖ Ъlyazma 8 vЪrЪq vЪ hЪr sЪhХfЪ 25 sЪtХrdЪn ХbarЪtdХr.

══════ BЖrhanХ-qate■nХn yuxarШda qeyd etdХyХmХz ЪlyazmalarШ, ЪlbЪttЪ kХ, lЖЭЪtХn bЖtЖn Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХnХ ЪhatЪ etmХr. LakХn bu nЖsxЪlЪr belЪ zЪngХn sЧz ehtХyatШnШ ЧzЖndЪ cЪmlЪЬdХrЪn lЖЭЪtХn uzun mЖddЪt genХЬ ХstХfadЪ olunmuЬ bХr dЪyЪrlХ kХtab kХmХ Вox mЪЬhur olmasШnШ bХr daha sЖbut etmХЬ olur.

═════════ QeydlЪr

1Burada toplanan bЪzХ Ъlyazma nЖsxЪlЪrХnХn genХЬ elmХ-paleoqrafХk tЪsvХrХnЪ ЪldЪ edЪ bХldХyХmХz dХgЪr kataloqlarda rast gЪlmХЬХk. Bu sЪbЪbdЪn sШralanmada naqХslХk yaratmamaq ЖВЖn mЪlumatlarШ hЪr bХr kataloqdaverХldХyХ kХmХ qeyd edЪcЪyХk.

══════ 2 ⌠BЖrhanХ-qate■nХn ъhmЪd MЖnzЪvХ kataloqunda qШsa tЪsvХrХ verХlЪn bЪzХ nЖsxЪlЪr haqqШnda ЪtraflШ mЪlumatlar doktor MЪhЪmmЪd MuХnХn hazШrladШЭШ hЪmХn lЖЭЪtХn 1362 (1983)-cХ Хl nЪЬrХnХn mЖqЪddХmЪsХndЪ dЪ verХlmХЬdШr. Bu (*) ХЬarЪnХn qeyd olunduЭu hЪr bХr Ъlyazma nЖsxЪsХndЪ dЪ ЪlavЪ olaraq hЪmХn mЪlumatlardan ХstХfadЪ edЪcЪyХk.

ъdЪbХyyat════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

1) MЪhЪmmЪdЪlХ TЪrbХyЪt. DanХЬmЪndanХ-AzЪrbaycan (GЧrkЪmlХ elm vЪ sЪnЪt adamlarШ). AzЪrbaycan DЧvlЪt NЪЬrХyyatШ. BakШ, 1987. 460 sЪh.

2) TЖrkХye DХyanet VakfШ, хslam AnsХklopedХsХ. CХlt-6. хstanbul, 1992. 559 sЪh.

3) йЮРЮКНЦ ОЕПЯХДЯЙХУ ПСЙНОХЯЕИ. ш РНЛ. аЮЙС, 1994. 317 ЯРП.

4) лЮЛЕДНБЮ л. ц. нЯМНБМШЕ ОПХМЖХОШ ЯНЯРЮБКЕМХЪ ОЕПЯХДЯЙХУ РНКЙНБШУ ЯКНБЮПЕИ X╡-XV╡╡ БЕЙНБ. юБРНПЕТЕПЮР ДХЯЯЕПРЮЖХХ, ОПЕДЯРЮБКЕММНИ СВЕМНИ ЯРЕОЕМХ ЙЮМДХДЮРЮ ТХКНКНЦХВЕЯЙХУ МЮСЙ. аЮЙС, 1968. 42 ЯРП.

5) Catalogue of PersХan ManuscrХptsХn Хn the шndХa OffХce lХbrary. Hermann Ethe. London, 1980. Volume ш. 1632 p.

6) Fehres-Ъl-mЪxtutat-Ъl-farsХyye. ъl-qesm-ol-ЪvvЪl (Ъlef-ЬХn). ъl-Qahere mЪtbЪЪ Dar-ol-kotob, 1966. 350 s.

7) Borhan-e Эate. Ba ehtemam-e doctor MЪhЪmmЪd MoХn. Celd-e ЪvvЪl: ъlef-se. Tehran, 1362. 550 s.

8) Fehrest-e nosxeha-ye xЪttХ-ye farsХ. NeqarЪnde: ъhmЪd MonzЪvХ. Celd-e sevvom. Tehran, 1350. s. 1846-2615.

9) Fehrest-e nosЪx-e xЪttХ-ye ketabxane-ye mellХ. FЪrahЪm avЪrЪnde: Seyyed ъbdullah ъnvar. Celd-e sevvom. Tehran, 1351. 586 s.

10) Fehrest-e nosЪx-e xЪttХ-ye ketabxane-ye mellХ. FЪrahЪm avЪrЪnde: Seyyed ъbdullah ъnvar. Celd-e ВЪharom. Tehran. 1352. 504 s.

11) Fehrest-e nosЪx-e xЪttХ-ye ketabxane-ye mellХ. FЪrahЪm avЪrЪnde: Seyyed ъbdullah ъnvar. Celd-e pЪncom. Tehran. 1353. 718 s.

12) Fehrest-e nosЪx-e xЪttХ-ye ketabxane-ye mellХ. FЪrahЪm avЪrЪnde: Seyyed ъbdullah ъnvar. Celd-e ЬeЬЬom. Tehran. 1354. 919 s.

13) Fehrest-e ketabxane-ye mЪcles-e Ьura-ye mellХ. TЪlХf: Yusef EtesamХ (Etesam Ъl-Molk SabeЭ). Celd-e dovvom. Tehran, 1311. 539 s.

14) Fehrest-e ketabxane-ye mЪcles-e Ьura-ye mellХ. TЪlХf: хbn Yusef ьХrazХ. Celd-e sevvom. Tehran, 1318-1321. 813 s.

15) Fehrest-e ketabxane-ye mЪcles-e Ьura-ye mellХ. TЪlХf: ъbd Ъl-Hoseyn HaerХ. Celd-e hХfdЪhom. Tehran, 1348. 424 s.

16) Fehrest-e nosxeha-ye xЪttХ-ye ВЪhar ketabxane-ye MЪЬhЪd (MЪdrЪse-ye Soleyman Xan √ MЪdrЪse-ye MХrza CЪfЪr √ Ketabxane-ye FЪrhЪng √ Came-e QohЪr ьad ). NeveЬte-ye Kazem ьaneВХ, ъbdullah NuranХ, TЪЭХ BХneЬ. Celd-e ЪvvЪl. Tehran, 1351. 435 s.

17) Fehrest-e nosxeha-ye xЪttХ-ye ketabxane-ye daneЬkЪde -ye elahХyyatvЪ mЪa╜ref-e eslamХ-ye daneЬqah-e Tehran. GerdavЪrХ-tЪnzХm: Seyyed MЪhЪmmЪd BaЭer Hoc╜cЪtХ. Ba tЪhЭХЭ vЪ nЪzarЪt-e MЪhЪmmЪd TЪЭХ DaneЬ PЪjuh. Tehran, 1345. 1227 s.

18) Fehrest-e nosxeha-ye xЪttХ-ye ketabxaneha-ye RЪЬt vЪ HЪmЪdan (Ketabxane-ye cЪmХyyЪt-e nЪЬr-e fЪrhЪng-e RЪЬt √ ketabxane-ye ЭЪrb-e mЪdrЪse-ye axund HЪmЪdan vЪ cЪnd mЪcmue-ye xosuse HЪmЪdan). TЪlХf: MЪhЪmmЪd RoЬЪn-CЪvad MЪЭsud-PЪrvХz ъdkaХ. Tehran, 1353. 1084-1797 s.

19) Fehrest-e nosxeha-ye xЪttХ-ye ketabxane-ye omumХ-ye HЪzrЪt AyЪtullah Ъl-ъzЪmХ NЪcЪfХ MЪrЪЬХ. ZХr nЪzЪr: Seyyed MЪhmud MЪrЪЬХ. NeqareЬ: Seyyed ъhmЪd HoseynХ. Celd-e dЪvazdЪhom. хran-эom, 1315. 379 s.

20) Fehrest-e ketabxane-ye mЪrkЪzХ-ye daneЬqah-e Tehran. NeqareЬ: MЪhЪmmЪd TЪЭХ DaneЬ PЪjuh. MocЪlled-e nohom. Tehran, 1340. 761-1504 s.

21) Fehrest-e ketabxane-ye mЪrkЪzХ-ye daneЬqah-e Tehran. NeqareЬ: MЪhЪmmЪd TЪЭХ DaneЬ PЪjuh. MocЪlled-e dЪhom. Tehran, 1340. 1505-2000 s.

22) MХrza MЪhЪmmЪd ъlХ ModЪrres. ReyhanЪt-ol- ЪdЪb. Celd-e ЪvvЪl. 1369.352

пЕГЧЛЕ

нАПЮГЖШ ПСЙНОХЯЕИ ЯНУПЮМЪЧР Б ЯЕАЕ АНЦЮРНЕ КХРЕПЮРСПМН-УСДНФЕЯРБЕММНЕ Х ЙСКЭРСПМНЕ МЮЯКЕДХЕ Х ВЮЯРЭ ЩРХУ ПСЙНОХЯЕИ ЯНЯРЮБКЪЧР ЙКЮЯЯХВЕЯЙХЕ ЯКНБЮПХ.

нДХМ ХГ РЮЙХУ ОЮЛЪРМХЙНБ ОХЯЭЛЕММНЯРХ, ЯКНБЮПЭ аСПУЮМЕ-ЙЮРЕ (оПЪ╜ЛНЕ ДНЙЮГЮРЕКЭЯРБН) МЮОХЯЮММШИ лСУЮЛЛЕД уСЯЕИМ А. уЮКЮТ рЮАПХГХ.

яКНБЮПЭ АШК НДМНИ ХГ МЮЯРНКЭМШУ ЙМХЦ РНЦН БПЕЛЕМХ Х Б МЮЯРНЪЫЕЕ БПЕЛЪ ЩЙГЕЛОКЪПШ ЯКНБЮПЪ ЪБКЪЧР ДНЯРНЪМХЕЛ МЕ РНКЭЙН хМЯРХРСРЮ пСЙНОХЯХ юГЕПАЮИДФЮМЯЙНИ пЕЯОСАКХЙХ, Ю РЮЙФЕ ЛХПНБШУ АХАКХНРЕЙ Х ЛСГЕЕБ.

═════════ б ОЕПБСЧ НВЕПЕДЭ Б ЯРЮРЭЕ ДЮЕРЯЪ НАЫЕЕ ЯБЕДЕМХЕ Н ЯКНБЮПЕ, Ю РЮЙФЕ МЮСВМН-ОЮКЕНЦПЮТХВЕЯЙНЕ НОХЯЮМХЕ МЮХАНКЕЕ ДПЕБМХУ Х ЖЕММШУ НАПЮГЖНБ ПСЙНОХЯХ.

SUMMARY

═════════ One of the manuscrХpt copХes whХch retaХns the lХterary-poetХcal and cultural herХtage are classХcal dХctХonary samples. The ⌠Burhane-qate■ (Proper evХdence) dХctХonary whХch was wrХtten by Muhammad HusaХn b. Khalaf TabrХzХ Хs one of such scrХpts.

═════════ A lot of manuscrХpt copХes of the dХctХonary, whХch were used as reference book for a long tХme, are preserved at ManuscrХpt шnstХtute and Хn varХous museums and lХbrarХes of the world.

═════════ FХrstly, the paper comprХses general ХnformatХon about the dХctХonary and the scХentХfХc-paleographХcal descrХptХon of some ancХent and valuable manuscrХpt copХes outlХnes Хn the paper.


 

юМЮП йЪПХЛНБ

ъгчмцньлюяшмшм йкюяяхй тюпя дхкхмдъ хтюдъ ердхих лъмюкюп


ъГЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ЦЪДХЛ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪЫЮВЮЬЪЙКХМДЪ ХЬКЪМЛХЬ БЪ ЛЪМЮ ДЮХПЪЯХ Н ЦЪДЪП ДЪ ЩЕМХЬ НКЛЮЛШЬДШП. нМСМ ТСМЙЯХНМЮК ЩЕМХЬКХИХ ЪЯЮ╜╜ЯЪМ НПРЮ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪМ АЮЬКЮИШП. (3, 277) цНЬЛЮМШМ НПРЮ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪ ХТЮДЪ ЕРДХИХ ЛЪМЮКЮПЮ ЪЯЮЯЪМ ЮЬЮЭШДЮЙШКЮПШ ЮХД ЕРЛЪЙ НКЮП: 1)ЫЪПЪЙЪР АХКДХПЪМ ТЕККЪПКЪ ХЬКЪМДХЙДЪ АЮЬКЮМЭШЗ ХТЮДЪ ЕДХП:

юПДЮУЯШП ЫСППЮЛ АЕ АСД СД ЮГ ЮМНЫ ОЮД ЮwХЯРЮА АЕ ПЮТР (ъПДЪЬХП ЯЕБХМДХ БЪ РЪКЪЯХЙ НПЮДЮМ ЩЕРДХ) (9, 44);

юПДЮУЯШП ЙЮ-Я ОЮД ЕМ ЕwЕМЮЩ ДШД ЯОЮЫ ЮГ ЮМНЫ ЙЮМД СД АЕ ПЮТР (ъПДЪЬХП АСМС АЕКЪ ЩЧПЪМДЪ ЧГ НПДСЯСМС ВЪЙДХ БЪ ЩЕРДХ) (9, 50).═══

2)ГЮЛЮМЮ ЩЧПЪ АЮЬКЮМЭШЗ АХКДХПХП:

ЫЮЗ ШЛ ПНЗ РЮЙ 3 ПНЗ (АС ЩЖМДЪМ ЖВ ЩЖМЪ ЦЪДЪП) (10, 186).

3)АЖРЧБДЪМ ЫХЯЯЪМХМ, ВНУКСЦДЮМ РЪЙХМ ЯЕВХКЛЪЯХ:════

с-Я ЛЮПД-Е ЮГ ЮwЕЯРwЮПЮМ Ш УwЕЯ Н ОЕЯ ЙЕД Ш ЫХМДСЩЮМ ТПЕЯРШД ОЮД ОСПЯХЯМ ЙЮПДЮМ Ш ЮПЮЯРЮМ (Ш) еПЮМЯЮЫП ОЮД Еw-УwЮДЮИШЫ (н ЧГ ЕРХАЮПКШ ЮДЮЛКЮПШМДЮМ АХПХМХ ЫХМД ЙЮЫХМХМ ИЮМШМЮ хПЮМЬЪЫПХМ БЮЫХД ДЧБКЪРЪ ВЕБПХКЛЪЯХ ЫЮЦЦШМДЮ ЯНПСЬЛЮЦ ЖВЖМ ЩЧМДЪПДХ) (9, 59).

4)ЛЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ:

яЮАСП Н ЙЮМХГЮЩ ЩСТР ЙС ПЮЯР ЩНw ЙС РН ЮГ ТПЮГЮМДЮМ Ш ЙЕ ЫЕЫ (ьЮОСП ЦШГЮ (ЙЪМХГЪ) ДЕДХ ЙХ, ДЖГ ДЕ, ЯЪМ ЙХЛХМ ЧБКЮДКЮПШМДЮМЯЮМ) (9, 61);

н ЮwЕЯЮМ ЩСТР ЙС ЛЮМ ЮГ ЮЯwЮПЮМ Ш юПДЮУЯШП ЫЮЛ (нМКЮПЮ ДЕДХ ЙХ, ЛЪМ ъПДЪЬХПХМ ЯЖБЮПХКЪПХМДЪМ АХПХИЪЛ) (9, 51).

5)ЪКДЪ ЕРЛЪ, ЮКШМЛЮ ЛЪМАЪИХ:

ЩСТР ЙС ЛЮМ ЛЮПД-Е (Ш) УwЮПЮЯЮМХЩ ЫЮЛ (СД) ЮГ ЕМ wЮПГЮwЮМД УwЮДЮИ ЮИЮТР-Е УwЮ╜╜╜ЫЮЛ ЙС Н ДЮП (Ш) ОЮПХЯРХЯМ ЮИЮЛ (ДЕДХ ЙХ, ЛЪМ УНПЮЯЮМКШИЮЛ БЪ ЦЖДПЪРКХ ЫЧЙЛ╜╜ДЮПДЮМ ЯЮПЮИДЮ УХДЛЪР ЕРЛЪЙ ЖВЖМ УЮЫХЬ ЕДХПЪЛ) (9, 52).

6)ЯЪАЪА ЛЪМЮЯШМДЮ ХЬКЪМХП:

йЮМХГЮЩ ЩСТР ЙС ЛЮМ ДСУР (Ш) лХЫПЮЩ Ш юМНЯЮЩГЮДЮМ ЫЮЛ СД ЮГ АШЛ Ш юПДЮУЯШП (ПЮИ) Н ЕМ ЩИЮЩ ЮМШД ЫЮЛ (цШГ ДЕДХ ЙХ, ЛЪМ ъМСЬЪЙГЮДЪМХМ НЭКС лЕЫПЮЦШМ ЦШГШИЮЛ, ъПДЪЬХПХМ ЦНПУСЯСМДЮМ ЛЪМХ АСПЮ ЩЪРХПХАКЪП) (9, 61).

7)ЛЪКСЛЮР ЪКДЪ ЕРЛЪ ЛЪМАЪИХ:

йЮМХГЮЩ ЩСТР ЙС ЛЮМ ЮГ wЮЯ ЙЮЯ ЮЯМСД ЙС ЮМДЮП еПЮМЯЮЫП ЮЯwЮП-Е МЕЯР┘ (цШГ ДЕ╜╜╜ДХ ЙХ, ЛЪМ ВНУСМДЮМ ЕЬХРЛХЬЪЛ ЙХ, хПЮМЬЪЫПДЪ ЮРКШ ИНУДСП┘) (9, 61).

8)ЛЖЦЮИХЯЪ ГЮЛЮМШ ХЬКЪМХП:

ЫЮЗ НЯЮМ ЫЮЛНЙЕМ ЗЕП СР БЮПРЮЙ АСР (НМКЮПШМ ЫЮЛШЯШМДЮМ ДЮЫЮ ЖЯРЖМ БЪ ЦЮКХА ХДХ) (10, 188).

9)аС ЛЪМЮКЮПДЮМ ЪКЮБЪ, АХП ЯШПЮ ТЕККЪПХМ РЪКЪАХ ХКЪ ДЪ ХЬКЪМЪ АХКХП. лЪЯЪКЪМ, ОСП╜ЯХ╜╜╜╜РЮМ ТЕКХ ХКЪ:

юПДЮwЮМ ЮГ ДЮЯРwЮП ОСПЯХД ЙС ЮМ wЮППЮЩ Х-Я ЮАЮЩ ОЮД ЮЯО ЗЕ МХЛЮИЕД? (ъП╜ДЪ╜БЮМ ДЪЯРСПДЮМ (АЮЬ ЙЮЫХМ) ЯНПСЬДС: НМКЮПКЮ ЮРШМ ЖЯРЖМДЪ НКЮМ ЦНИСМ МЪ ДЕ╜ЛЪЙ╜ДХП?) (9, 45);

юПДЮwЮМ ЮГ ЮwЕЯЮМ ОСПЯХД ЙС ЮМ 2 ЮЯwЮП ЙЮДЮЛ ЩИЮЩ ОЮДХПЮЩ АСД? (ъПДЪБЮМ НМ╜КЮПДЮМ ЯНПСЬДС: ЯХГ Н ХЙХ ЮРКШ ХКЪ ЫЮПЮДЮ ЩЧПЖЬДЖМЖГ?) (9, 45).

10)ЬЪУЯ, ЫЮДХЯЪ БЪ ИЮ ОПЕДЛЕРДЪМ ЮИПШКЛЮ ГЮЛЮМШ ХЬКЪМХП:

ЙЕ ЫЮЗ ЯОЮГЩХЫ СР ЗЮЯЛЮПХЯЙХЫ ОЮЫПХЗЕР (ОЮУШККШЦ БЪ ЯЧГ ЩЪГДХПЛЪЙДЪМ ЦЮВЮМ Н ЙЪЯ) (10, 188).

11)АХП ЯШПЮ АЮЬЦЮ ТЕККЪПХМ РЪЯХПХ ХКЪ ДЪ ХЬКЪМЪ АХКХП:

яЮАСП ЩСТР ЙС ЮМНЯЮЩ АЮwЕД ЕМ ОСЯ Ш ЛЮМ ЮЯР С-Л ЮГ ЕМ ЮМД ЯЮК ЮАЮГ ЮГ ЮЯЛЮ ОЮД МХЫЮМ ДЮЯР (ьЮОСП ДЕДХ: ъАЪДХ ИЮЬЮИШМ! аС ЛЪМХЛ НЭКСЛДСП БЪ АС МЕВЪ ХК ЪП╜╜ГХМДЪ НМС ЯХГДЪМ ЩХГКЪРЛХЬЪЛ) (9, 62);

лНwАЕДЮМ ЛНwАЕД ЙЮ-Я ДШД ЙС юПДЮУЯШП ЮГ ЮМ ЙЮП Н ОЮЯЕЛЮМХЫ ЛЮД ОЮД ПНИ НАЮЯР (аЮЬ ЙЮЫХМ ъПДЪЬХПХМ ЩЧПДЖИЖ ХЬДЪМ ОЕЬЛЮМ НКДСЭСМС ЩЧПЪМДЪ ЯЪЗДЪ ЕРДХ) (9, 57);

яЮАСП нЫПЛЮГД ЮГ ОХДЮП ОЮД МХЫЮМ ДЮЯР РЮ ЮМ ЙЮ Н ДЮД Ш 7 ЯЮКЮЩ ЛЮД (ьЮОСП ыЧП╜ЛЖГ╜ДЖ 7 ИЮЬШМЮ ЦЪДЪП ЮРЮЯШМДЮМ ЩХГКХ ЯЮУКЮДШ) (9, 61);

дСУР Ш юПДЮwЮМ ЙЮ-Я ЮМ МЮЛЮЩ ОЮД ЮМ ЕwЕМЮЩ ДШД ЮАЮЩ ГЮЫП Х-Я ЮwХ-Я ТПЕЯРШД ЫЮМ╜╜╜╜ДЕЯХД ЙС ЫЮЛЩНМЮЩ ЮАЮИЕД ЙЮПДЮМ СД ЮМ 4 АПЮДЮП Ш wЮДАЮУР ЮГ АЮМД ПЮЯРЮЩ ЙЮП╜╜╜╜╜ДЮМ (ъПДЪБЮМШМ ЦШГШ НМЮ ЩЧМДЪПДХЙКЪПХ ГЪЫЪПКЪ АС ЛЪГЛСМДЮ ЛЪЙРСАС ЩЧ╜ПЪМ╜╜ДЪ ТХЙХПКЪЬДХ ЙХ: ЛЪМ АСМС ЕРЛЪКХИЪЛ БЪ ДЧПД АЪДАЪУР ЦЮПДЮЬШЛШ ЦЮМДЮКДЮМ ЮГЮД ЕРЛЪКХИЪЛ) (9, 55).

══════ т.гЖКТЖЦЮПНБЮ ЦЕИД ЕДХП ЙХ, ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШМШМ ХМДХ АХКДХПДХИХ ЪЯЮЯ ЛЪМЮ МЧБ╜╜╜╜╜КЪПХ ЦЪДХЛ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪ ДЪ НКЛСЬДСП. (7, 111) ъЩЪП ЪКДЪ НКСМЮМ ТЮЙРКЮПЮ ХЯ╜РХ╜╜МЮД ЕР╜ЯЪЙ, ЩЧПЪПХЙ ЙХ, АС ТХЙХП РЮЛ ЛЪМЮДЮ ЧГЖМЖ ДНЭПСКРЛСП, АЕКЪ ЙХ, ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМ╜ЦНЬ╜╜╜ЛЮЯШ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМХМ РЮПХУХ ХМЙХЬЮТ ЛЪПЫЪКЪКЪПХМДЪМ ЙЕВДХЙЗЪ ТСМЙЯХНМЮК ЪЫЮ╜РЪ╜ЯХ╜МХ ДЮ╜╜ЫЮ ДЮ ЩЕМХЬКЪМДХПЛЪИЪ АЮЬКЮЛШЬДШП.

⌠ЪГ■ ЧМ╜ЦНЬ╜ЛЮЯШ НПРЮ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪ ХТЮДЪ ЕРДХИХ ЛЪМЮКЮПШ ЙКЮЯЯХЙ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪ ДЪ ЯЮУКЮИШП:

1)ХЬ БЪ ЫЪПЪЙЪРХМ АЮЬКЮМЭШЗ МЧЦРЪЯХМХ АХКДХПХП:

лЮ ЪГ ыЕПЮР ЦЪЯД-Е аЪКУ ДЮПХЛ РЮ ХМ ГЕЛЕЯРЮМ ЮМЗЮ ЛЪЦЮЛ ЙЪПДЕ ЮИЪД (1, 8)

(аХГ ыЕПЮРДЮМ аЪКУЪ ЫЮГШПКЮЬШПШЦ ЙХ, ЦШЬШ НПЮДЮ ЦЮКЮЦ);

тЕКЮМ ПСГ ЛЮ ЪГ аЪКУ ЫЪПЪЙЪР УЮЫХЛ ЙЪПД(2, 400)═════════════════════

(тХКЮМ ЩЖМ аЪКУДЪМ ЫЪПЪЙЪР ЕДЪЗЪИХЙ);

══════ аС ЛЪМЮДЮ, ЪЙЯЪПЪМ, ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮКШ ЯЧГ ЧГЖМДЪМ ЯНМПЮ ЫЪПЪЙЪРХМ ХЯ╜РХ╜ЦЮ╜ЛЪ╜╜╜╜РХМХ АХКДХПЪМ ⌠АЕ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮКШ ЯЧГЖМ ХЬКЪДХКЛЪЯХМХ РЪКЪА ЕДХП (5, 53):

ыЪП ЙЕ ЪГ лЕЯП АЕ лЪЙЙЕ УЮЫЪД ЬНДЪМ ЯС-ИЕ ЛЪЬПЕЦ АЮИЪД ЬНДЪМ (4, 109)

(йХЛ лХЯХПДЪМ лЪЙЙЪИЪ ЩЕРЛЪЙ ХЯРЪИХПЯЪ, ЬЪПЦЪ РЪПЪТ ЩЕРЛЪКХДХП);

ъГ ПНЯРЮ АЕ ЬЪЫП ЮБЪПДЕ АСДЪМД БЪ ДЪП АЮГЮП ЛХТНПСУРЪМД (4, 182) ═══════

(йЪМДДЪМ ЬЪЫЪПЪ ЩЪРХПЛХЬДХКЪП БЪ АЮГЮПДЮ ЯЮРШПДШКЮП).

2)ЪЬИЮМШМ ДЮУХКХМДЪМ АЮЬКЮИЮМ ЫЪПЪЙЪР МЧЦРЪЯХМХ АХКДХПХП:

цНПАЕ ДЪП ДЮЛ НТРЮД БЪ ЛСЬ АЕРЪКЪА-Е РН▓ЛЕ ЪГ ЯСПЮУ АХПСМ ПЪТР (8, 251)

(оХЬХЙ РЪКЪИЪ ДЖЬДЖ БЪ ЯХВЮМ ИЕЛ ХЯРЪИХ ХКЪ ДЕЬХЙДЪМ ВШУДШ);

оЪЯ ЮЦЮЫХ ЮЛЪД АЕ ЪТПЮЯХИЮА═════ ЙЕ ЮРЪЬ АЪП ЮЛЪД ГЕ ДЪПИЮ-ИЕ ЮА (11, 444)══════════════════════════════════════

(ъТПЮЯХИЮАЮ УЪАЪП ВЮРДШ ЙХ, ДЪМХГДЪМ НД ЦЮКУША).

══════ цЕИД ЕРЛЪЙ КЮГШЛДШП ЙХ, АС ЛХЯЮККЮПДЮ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ХКЪ ИЮМЮЬШ ЗЖЛ╜КЪ╜МХМ ЖЛС╜ЛХ ЛЪМЮЯШ БЪ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ХКЪ ХЬКЪМЪМ ЯЧГЖМ КЕЙЯХЙ ЛЪМЮЯШ ДЮ ЛЖЪИ╜╜ИЪМ ДЪ╜╜ПЪЗЪДЪ ПНК НИМЮИШП. зЖЛКЪКЪПДЪ ХЬКЪМЪМ ⌠ЯСПЮУ, ДЪПИЮ■ ЯЧГ╜╜КЪПХ МХЯ╜АЪ╜РЪМ ЦЮ╜ОЮКШ ЛЪЙЮМ НКДСЭСМДЮМ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ЪЬИЮМШМ ДЮУХКХМДЪМ АЮЬ╜╜КЮИЮМ ЫЪ╜ПЪ╜ЙЪ╜╜╜РХМ МЧЦРЪЯХМХ АХКДХПЛХЬДХП.

3)ЫЪПЪЙЪРХМ ЪЬИЮМШМ ИЮМШМДЮМ ЙЕВЛЪЙКЪ АЮЬ БЕПДХИХМХ АХКДХПХП:

ъЩЪП ПЕАЮР-Н-ЮА МЪАСДХ ЙЪЯХ ЪГ ЮМ АХИЮАЮМ ЦНГЪП МЪЙЪПДХ(4, 251) ═══════

(ъЩЪП ЙЮПБЮМЯЮПЮ БЪ ЯС НКЛЮЯЮИДШ, ЫЕВ ЙЪЯ Н ЯЪЫПЮДЮМ ЙЕВЪ АХКЛЪГДХ);

вН ЪГ ЙЕЬБЪПЪЛ АНЦГЪПХ ДЪП ЗЪЫЮМ═════ МЕЙСЫЕЬ ЙНМЪМДЪЛ ЙЕЫЮМ-Н-ЛЕЫЮМ (11, 250)

(лЪМХЛ ЧКЙЪЛДЪМ ЙЕВЯЪМ АХП ЩЖМ ЫЮЛШ ЛЪМХ ЛЪГЪЛЛЪР ЕДЪП).

щЧ╜ПЖМДЖИЖ ЙХЛХ, БЕПХКЛХЬ ЛХЯЮККЮПДЮ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ АС ЛЪМЮДЮ ДЮЫЮ ВНУ ⌠НАСП ЙЪПДЪМ, ЦНГЪП ЙЪПДЪМ, ЦНГЪЬРЪМ■ БЪ Я. НУЬЮП ЛЪМЮКШ ТЕККЪПКЪ ХЬКЪМХП. ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМ╜╜╜ЦНЬЛЮЯШ ЙКЮЯ╜ЯХЙ ТЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪМ АЮЬКЮИЮПЮЦ ЪЬИЮМШМ ИЮМШМДЮМ ЙЕВЛЪЙКЪ АЮЬ БЕ╜ПЪМ ЫЪПЪЙЪР МЧ╜БЖМЖ АХКДХПЛЪЙ ЖВЖМ ХЬКЪДХКХП. (7, 111)

4)ЯЪАЪА ЛЪМЮЯШ:

ъГ ЯЪПЛЮ ЦНТРЪЛ ЪЙМСМ ЛЮ ПЮ ДЪП ЫЪЛЮЛ АЮИЪД ЬНДЪМ (4, 230)═══════════

(яНИСЦДЮМ ДЕДХЛ ЙХ, АХГ ЫЮЛШЛШГ ЫЮЛЮЛЮ ЩЕРЛЪКХИХЙ);

лХДЮМЕЯРЪМД ЙЕ ЪЩЪП ЙЮЫЕКХ ЙНМЪМД ЪГ РЕЬМЕЩХ АЕЛХПЪМД (4, 168)══════ ════════════════════════════════════════════════

(аХКХПДХКЪП, ЪЩЪП РЪМАЪККХЙ ЕРЯЪКЪП, ЯСЯСГКСЦДЮМ ЧКЪПКЪП).

5)ЛЖЦЮИХЯЪ-АЪМГЪРЛЪ (ЙНЛОЮПЮРХБ) ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ. ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ХКЪ ЪЙЯ ЕР╜ДХ╜ПХ╜КЪМ ЛЖ╜╜ЦЮИХЯЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХМДЪ ДЪ ХЙХ ЪЬИЮ БЪ ИЮ ЬЪУЯ ЛЖЦЮИХЯЪ ЕДХКХП, АС ЛЖ╜МЮ╜ЯХ╜АЪР ЫЪ╜╜ЛХЬЪ ЯХТЪРХМ ЛЖЦЮИХЯЪ ДЪПЪЗЪЯХ ХКЪ БЕПХКХП. (6, 24)

лЪМ ДЪП ЫЪЛЕ-ИЕ ГЪЛХМ-Е ОЮПЯХЦСИЮМ ЬЪЫП-Х МХЙСРЪП БЪ ЗЮЛЕ▓РЪП БЪ ЮАЮДЮМРЪП ЪГ еЯТЪЫЮМ МЪДХДЪЛ (4, 249)

(лЪМ АЖРЖМ ТЮПЯДХККХ ЪПЮГХДЪ хЯТЮЫЮМДЮМ ЩЧГЪК, ЮАЮД ЬЪЫЪП ЩЧПЛЪДХЛ).

══════ бЕПХКЛХЬ ЛХЯЮКДЮ ХЬКЪМЪМ ЯХТЪРКЪП ЛЖЦЮИХЯЪ ДЪПЪЗЪЯХ ТНПЛЮЯШМДЮ ЩЧЯ╜РЪ╜ПХК╜╜ЛХЬ╜ДХП БЪ ТНПЛЮ ЗЪЫЪРДЪМ ЛЖЮЯХП ДХКДЪМ ТЪПЦКЪМЛХП. кЮЙХМ АХП ЯШПЮ ЯЧГКЪП БЮП╜ДШП ЙХ, НМКЮП ЮДХ ДЪПЪЗЪ ТНПЛЮЯШМДЮ ХЬКЪМХП БЪ ИЮКМШГ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШМШМ ХЬ╜КЪМ╜ЛЪ╜ЯХ ЯХ╜ТЪРХМ ЛЖЦЮИХЯЪ ДЪПЪЗЪЯХМДЪ НКЛЮЯШМШ ЛЖЪИИЪМ ЕДХП. аС ЯЧГКЪПЪ ⌠АХЬ, ЙЪЛ, ЪТ╜ГСМ, АЕЫ■ БЪ Я. ЮХДДХП:

оЪМД-Х ЪЩЪП АЕЬМЪБХ ЕИ ОЮДЬЮЫ ДЪП ЫЪЛЕ ЮКЪЛ АЕЫ ЪГ ХМ ОЪМД МХЯР (12, 217)

(еИ ЬЮЫ, ЪЩЪП ЧИЖД ЕЬХРЯЪМ, АЖРЖМ ДЖМИЮДЮ АСМДЮМ ИЮУЬШ ЧИЖД ИНУДСП).

6)ДЕКХАЕПЮРХБ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРКЪП:

юМВЕ С ЕЬЮПЪР ЛХЙНМЪД ЪГ ЦНПХУРЪМ БЪ ЛЪПЙЪГ УЮКХ ЦНГЮЬРЪМ ЛЪМ АЮПХ ЫЪПЩЕГ МЪЦСИЪЛ (8, 193)

(нМСМ ЦЮВЛЮ БЪ ЛЕИДЮМШ АНЬ АСПЮУЛЮЭЮ ХЬЮПЪ ЕРЛЪЯХМДЪМ ЛЪМ ЫЕВ БЮУР АХП ЯЧГ ДЕЛЪПЪЛ).

══════ м.д.цЮПХОНБЮ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШМШМ ЯНМПЮКЮП ЛЕИДЮМЮ ЩЪКЪМ ИЕМХ ЛЪМЮ ЛЖ╜МЮ╜╜╜╜ЯХАЪРКЪПХМДЪМ ДЮМШЬЮПЙЪМ ЦЕИД ЕДХП ЙХ, АС ЧМЦНЬЛЮ НПРЮ ТЮПЯ ДХКХ ДЧБПЖМДЪМ ЕРХ╜╜╜АЮПЪМ ЮПРШЦ ⌠ЫЮЦЦШМДЮ■ ЛЪМЮЯШ ДЮ АХКДХПЛЪИЪ АЮЬКЮЛШЬДШП. (7, 111)

7)ЗХМЯ-МЧБ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ. аС ГЮЛЮМ ЪЬИЮМШМ ЫЮГШПКЮМДШЭШ ЛЮРЕПХЮК АХКДХПХКХП:

вН АЪЯРЪП ГЕ УЮЙЪЯР-Н-АЮКХМ ГЕ УЕЬР══════ ДЕПЪУР-Х ВЕПЮ АЮИЪД ЕЛПСГ ЙЕЬР (11, 32)

(иЮРЮЦ РНПОЮЦ, АЮКШЬ ЙЪПОХВДЪМДХПЯЪ, АС ЩЖМ ЮЭЮЗ МХИЪ ЪЙЛЪКХ).

8)БЮЯХРЪ-ЮКЪР ЛЪМЮЯШ:

юМ ЬЪА мЕЬЮАСП ВСМ ПСГ ЬНДЕ АСД ЪГ ЬЪЛ▓ЫЮ БЪ ЛЪЬ▓ЪКЫЮ (2, 623) ═════════

(н ЩЕЗЪ мХЬЮОСП ЬЮЛ БЪ ЛЪЬЪККЪПДЪМ ЩЖМ ЙХЛХ ХДХ).

9)ЛЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ. аС ЦНЬЛЮ ХКЪ ХЬКЪДХКЪМ ЯЧГ ЧГЖМДЪМ ЪББЪКЙХ ХЯЛХМ ЛЪМ╜ЬЪ╜ИХ╜╜╜╜МХ РЪИХМ ЕДХП. т.х.гЖКТЖЦЮПНБЮ ЦЕИД ЕДХП ЙХ, ЦНЬЛЮМШМ ЛЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХМХ ЗХМЯ-МЧБ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХМДЪМ ТЪПЦКЪМДХПЪМ ЪЯЮЯ ЗЪЫЪР НМСМ ЪЯЮЯЪМ ЗЮМ╜╜КШ ХЯХЛКЪПКЪ ХЬ╜╜╜╜╜╜╜КЪМЛЪЯХДХП. лЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ ЪЙЯ ЕРДХПЪМ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ХЬ╜КЪМ╜╜ДХИХ ХЯЛХМ, ЮДЪ╜╜╜╜РЪМ, ЗЪЛДЪ НКЛЮЯШМШ РЪКЪА ЕДХП: (6, 29)

юМЗЮ ЬЪУЯ-Е РЪПЯЮ ДХДЪЛ ЙЕ ЪГ ЛНРЪЛЪББЕКЮМ-Е лЕЯП АСД (4, 143) ═══════

(нПЮДЮ лХЯХПХМ ГЪМЩХМКЪПХМДЪМ НКЮМ ЦНПУЮЦ АХП ЮДЮЛ ЩЧПДЖЛ).

лЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ ХТЮДЪ ЕДЪМ ■ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ХКЪ ХЬКЪМЪМ ЯЧГ ЗЪЛ ТНП╜ЛЮ╜ДЮ НК╜╜ЛЮИЮ ДЮ АХКЪП:

аНЦС ЛЪП ЛЪПЮ РЮ ЙЕ АСДЪЛ ОЕДЪП═════ ЙЕИЪЛ ЛЪМ ГЕ РНУЛ-Е ЙНДЮЛХМ ЦНЫЪП (11, 230)

(лЪМЪ ДЕ ЩЧПЖЛ, ЙХЛЪЛ ЛЪМ, ЮРЮЛ ЙХЛДХП, ЫЮМЯШ МЪЯХКДЪМЪЛ).

10)ЫХЯЯЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ. аС ЧМЦНЬЛЮМШМ ЪЙЯ ЕРДХПДХИХ ЫХЯЯЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ, НМСМ ЪЛЪ╜КЪ ЩЪРХПДХИХ ЛЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХМЪ АЪМГЪИХП. ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ЫХЯЯЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ ИЮ╜ПЮ╜╜╜╜╜ДЮП╜╜ЙЪМ, ЛЪМЬЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХМДЪ НКДСЭС ЙХЛХ, АХПКЪЬДХИХ ХЯЛХМ ЗЪЛДЪ НКЛЮЯШМШ РЪ╜╜╜╜╜КЪА ЕДХП. кЮЙХМ ЫХЯЯЪ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ ЪЙЯ ЕРДХПЪМ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШМДЮМ ЪББЪК ИЮ ЛХЦ╜╜╜╜╜╜ДЮП ЯЮИШ, ИЮУСД ДЮ ЕДДЕ-Х, ИЕЙ-Х, ЦЪДП-Х БЪ Я. ЙХЛХ ЦЕИПХ-ЛЖЪИИЪМ ЪБЪГ╜КХЙ╜КЪП, ИЮ ДЮ ЦЕИПХ-ЛЖЪИ╜╜ИЪМКХЙ ЪКЮЛЪРХ НКЮМ ⌠ИЮ-ИЕ МЪЙЪПЕ■ ЦЪАСК ЕРЛХЬ ХЯХЛ ХЬКЪ╜ДХ╜╜КХП. (6, 29)

ъЩЪП ЙЪЯ-Х ЪГ УЕДЛЪРЙЮПЮМ-Е УЮМДЮМ ЗНГ ХЬЮМ ДЪП БЕИ ЯНУЪМ-Х МЮЫЕЛБЮП ЦСИЪД(1, 4)

(ъЩЪП НМДЮМ АЮЬЦЮ ЯЖКЮКЪ УХДЛЪРВХКЪПХМДЪМ АХПХ НМСМ ЫЮЦЦШМДЮ УНЬЮЩЪКЛЪГ ЯЧГ ДЕЯЪ).

11)ГЮЛЮМ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРХ. ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ГЮЛЮМ АХКДХПЪМ ХЯХЛ БЪ ГЪПТКЪПХМ ЪБ╜БЪ╜КХ╜МЪ ЩЪК╜╜╜╜ЛЪЙКЪ ЫЪПЪЙЪРХМ ГЮЛЮМ ЕРХАЮПХКЪ АЮЬКЮМЭШЗ МЧЦРЪЯХМХ АХКДХПХП:

яНУЪМЦС-ИЕ ДЕЫЦЮМ ВЕМХМ ЙЪПД ИЮД═════ ЙЕ ИЕЙ ПСГ йЕИУНЯПНС ЪГ АЮЛДЮД (11, 459)

(йЪМДКХ МЮРХЙ АЕКЪ УЮРШПКЮДШ ЙХ, АХП ЩЖМ йЕИУНЯПНБ ЯЪЫЪПДЪМ).

══════ т.гЖКТЖЦЮПНБЮ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШМШМ ГЮЛЮМ ЛЪМЮЯШ ЫЮЦЦШМДЮ ИЮГШП: ⌠аЪГЪМ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМЦНЬЛЮЯШ ЛЖЗЪППЪД ЛЪМЮКШ ХЯХЛКЪПДЪМ ЪББЪК ЩЪКЛЪЙКЪ ГЮЛЮМ ЛЪМЮЯШ АХК╜ДХ╜╜ПХП: ЪГ АЪВВЕЩХ ДЪП ИЕЙ ЛЪДПЪЯЕ АСДХЛ. аЪГХ ТЕККЪПХМ ЛЪЯДЪП ЬЪЙКХ ХКЪ ХЬ╜КЪ╜ДХ╜КЪМ ⌠ЪГ■ ЧМ╜ЦНЬ╜ЛЮ╜ЯШ ДЮ ГЮЛЮМ ЛЪГЛСМС ЪЙЯ ЕРДХПХП■. (5, 58)

ъДЪАХИИЮР

1.аЕИЫЪЦХ ыНЯЕИМ, рЮПХУ-Е АЕИЫЪЦХ, ЛНЗЪККЪД-Е ЪББЪК, рЕЫПЮМ, 1375.

2.аЕИЫЪЦХ ыНЯЕИМ, рЮПХУ-Е АЕИЫЪЦХ, ЛНЗЪККЪД-Е ДНББНЛ, рЕЫПЮМ, 1375.

3.ъАСКЦЮЯЕЛХ лНЫЯЕМ, дЪЯРСП-Е РЮПХУХ-ИЕ ГЪАЮМ-Е ТЮПЯХ, рЕЫПЮМ, 1375.

4.ъКЪБХ мЮЯЕП уНЯПНБ, яЪТЪПМЮЛЕ, рЕЫПЮМ, 1314.

5.гЖКТЖЦЮПНБЮ т., тЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪ ЦНЬЛЮКЮП БЪ НМКЮПШМ ХТЮДЪ ЕРДХИХ ЛЪМЮ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРКЪПХ (АХПХМЗХ ЛЪЦЮКЪ), еКЛХ ЪЯЪПКЪП 1, 1974.

6.гЖКТЖЦЮПНБЮ т., тЮПЯ ДХКХМДЪ ЦНЬЛЮКЮП БЪ НМКЮПШМ ХТЮДЪ ЕРДХИХ ЛЪМЮ ЛЖМЮЯХАЪРКЪПХ (ХЙХМЗХ ЛЪЦЮКЪ), еКЛХ ЪЯЪПКЪП 2, 1974.

6.гЖКТЖЦЮПНБЮ т.х., тЮПЯ ДХКХ ЦНЬЛЮКЮПШМШМ ЛЪМЬЪИХ ЛЪЯЪКЪЯХМЪ ДЮХП, еКЛХ ЙНМТПЮМЯШМ ЛЮРЕПХЮККЮПШ, аЮЙШ, 2001.

7.йЪКХКЕ БЪ ДЕЛМЕ,1314.

8.йМХЦЮ ДЕЪМХИ юПДЮЬХПЮ ЯШМЮ оЮОЮЙЮ, рПЮМЯЙПХОЖХЪ РЕЙЯРЮ, ОЕПЕБНД ЯН ЯПЕДМЕОЕПЯХДЯЙНЦН, ББЕДЕМХЕ, ЙНЛЛЕМРЮПХИ Х ЦКНЯЯЮПХИ н.л.вСМЮ╜ЙН╜╜БНИ, л., 1987.

9.пЮЯРНПЦСИЕБЮ б.я., тЮПЯХ-ИЕ ЛХИЮМЕ, рЕЫПЮМ, 1347.

10.тЕПДНСЯХ ъАСКЦЮЯЕЛ, ьЮЫМЮЛЕ, рЕЫПЮМ, 1381.

11.ьХПЮГХ яЪ▓ДХ, йНККХИИЮР-Е яЪ▓ДХ, рЕЫПЮМ, 1375.

пегчле

гМЮВЕМХЪ ОПЕДКНЦЮ (ЪГ) Б ЙКЮЯЯХВЕЯЙНЛ ОЕПЯХДЯЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ

оПЕДКНЦ ЪГ Б ЙКЮЯЯХВЕЯЙНЛ ОЕПЯХДЯЙНЛ ЪГШЙЕ ХЛЕК Б НЯМНБМНЛ ЯКЕДСЧЫХЕ ГМЮ╜ВЕ╜МХЪ: 1)МЮВЮКЭМЮЪ ОНГХЖХЪ ДЕИЯРБХЪ; 2)ОНГХЖХЪ ДЕИЯРБХЪ МЮВХМЮЧЫЕЕ ХГ БМСР╜ПХ ОПЕДЛЕРЮ; 3)ЙНЛОЮПЮРХБМШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ; 4)ОПХВХМЮ; 5)ДЕ╜КХ╜АЕ╜ПЮ╜РХБ╜МШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ; 6)ОЮПРХРХБМШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ; 7)ОПНХЯУНФДЕМХЕ; 8)РЕЛ╜ОН╜ПЮКЭ╜МШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ Х Р.О.

SUMMARY

The means of the preposition ЪГ in classic Persian

═══ The preposition ЪГ in classic Persian expressed the following means: 1)the be╜ginning of the deed; 2)the position of the deed which begins out off the object; 3)com╜parative attitudes; 4)reason; 5)deliberative attitudes; 6)partitive attitudes; ma╜te╜rial; 7)temporal attitudes etc.═════

 


 

юКШЕБЮ цЧКЭВНУПЮ аЮАЮЮКХ ЙШГШ

йбюмрхрюрхбмше══ уюпюйрепхярхйх══ ясаярюмрхбмшу

хцкюцнкэмшуйбюмрхтхйюрнпнб


рПЮДХЖХНММН ЙНКХВЕЯРБН НОПЕДЕКЪЕРЯЪ ВЕПЕГ ОНМЪРХЪ БЕКХВХМШ Х ВХЯКЮ. щРН НОПЕДЕКЕМХЕ БНЯУНДХР ЕЫЕ Й юПХЯРНРЕКЧ, ЙНРНПШИ БОЕПБШЕ ДЮК ДЕТХМХЖХЧ ЙЮРЕЦНПХЮКЭМНЦН ГМЮВЕМХЪ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЮ (юПХЯРНРЕКЭ 1934, Я 93).

йНКХВЕЯРБН, ЙЮЙ НАЗЕЙРХБМЮЪ ПЕЮКЭМНЯРЭ, МЮУНДХР БШПЮФЕМХЕ Б КНЦХВЕЯЙНИ Х ЪГШЙНБНИ ЙЮРЕЦНПХЪУ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЮ. б КНЦХВЕЯЙНИ ЙЮРЕЦНПХХ НРПЮФЮЧРЯЪ ПЕГСКЭРЮРШ ОНГМЮМХЪ, АЮГХПСЧЫЕЦНЯЪ МЮ ОПХМЖХОЕ ДЕРЕПЛХМХПНБЮММНЯРХ, ЯННРБЕРЯРБХЪ НРНАПЮФЕМХЪ НРНАПЮФЮЕЛНЛС. ъГШЙНБЮЪ ЙЮРЕЦНПХЪ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЮ НРПЮФЮЕР ПЕГСКЭРЮРШ ЯНЖХЮКЭМНЦН НОШРЮ, ЮАЯРПЮЦХПСЧЫЕИ ЛШЯКХРЕКЭМНИ ДЕЪРЕКЭМНЯРХ ОНЯПЕДЯРБНЛ ЪГШЙНБШУ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЕММШУ ЕДХМХЖ, ХЛЕМСЕЛШУ ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮРНПЮЛХ.

йЮРЕЦНПХЪ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЮ, Я ОНЛНЫЭЧ ЙНРНПНИ НЯСЫЕЯРБКЪЕРЯЪ ЙБЮМРХРЮРХБМНЕ БШДЕКЕМХЕ НАЗЕЙРНБ ЛЮРЕПХЮКЭМНЦН ЛХПЮ ЪГШЙНЛ, ОПЕДЯРЮБКЪЕР ЯНАНИ, ЙЮЙ ХГБЕЯРМН, НДМС ХГ МЮХАНКЕЕ ЯКНФМШУ ЙЮРЕЦНПХИЙЮЙ НАЫЕЦН, РЮЙ Х ВЮЯРМНЦН ЪГШЙНГМЮМХЪ. яОЕЖХТХЙЮ ОПНЪБКЕМХЪ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЕММШУ НРМНЬЕМХИ Б ЪГШЙЕ МЮЯРНКЭЙН ЛМНЦНЦПЮММЮ, ВРН ГЮЙНМНЛЕПМН ЯРЮКЮ НАЗЕЙРНЛ ХГСВЕМХЪ МЕ РНКЭЙН ПЮГКХВМШУ МЮСЙ, МН Х ПЮГКХВМШУ ЮЯОЕЙРНБ ЪГШЙНГМЮМХЪ:ЛНПТНКНЦХХ, ЯХМРЮЙЯХЯЮ, КЕЙЯХЙХ, ЯЕЛЮЯХНКНЦХХ, Х ЙЮЙ ОНЙЮГШБЮЧР ХЯЯКЕДНБЮМХЪ ОНЯКЕДМХУ, КЕР √ ТПЮГЕНКНЦХХ. щРН НАЗЪЯМЪЕРЯЪ РЕЛ, ВРН ЙНКХВЕЯРБЕММШЕ НРМНЬЕМХЪ МЕ РНКЭЙН ОПНМХГШБЮЧР, МН Х НПЦЮМХГСЧР ЪГШЙ, АСДСВХ ГЮКНФЕММШЛХ, Б НЯМНБЕ ЕЦН ЦПЮЛЛЮРХВЕЯЙХУ ОНЯРПНЕМХИ.

йБЮМРХРЮРХБМНЯРЭ, АСДСВХ РХОНКНЦХВЕЯЙНИ ЙЮРЕЦНПХЕИ, БЙКЧВЮЕР Б ЯЕАЪ ЛНПТНКНЦХВЕЯЙХЕ ЯПЕДЯРБЮ, МН МЕ НЦПЮМХВХБЮЕРЯЪ ХЛХ, РЮЙ ЙЮЙ НМЮ ЪБКЪЕРЯЪ ПЮГМНСПНБМЕБНИ Х ПЮГМНПЮГПЪДМНИ ЙЮРЕЦНПХЕИ, НУБЮРШБЮЧЫЕИ ЛНПТНКНЦХВЕЯЙХЕ, КЕЙЯХВЕЯЙХЕ, ЯКНБННАПЮГНБЮРЕКЭМШЕ Х ЯХМРЮЙЯХВЕЯЙХЕ ЯПЕДЯРБЮ Б ЯХЯРЕЛЮУ ПЮГКХВМШУ КЕЙЯХЙН-ЦПЮЛЛЮРХВЕЯЙХУ ПЮГПЪДНБ ЯКНБ. йПНЛЕ РНЦН, ОНД ЙЮРЕЦНПХЕИ ВХЯКЮ ОНМХЛЮКХЯЭ Х ХЯЯКЕДНБЮКХЯЭ Б НЯМНБМНЛ ТНПЛШ ЛМНФЕЯРБЕММНЦН ВХЯКЮ, ЯВХРЮЪ, ВРН ТНПЛШ ЕДХМЯРБЕММНЦН ВХЯКЮ ДНЯРЮРНВМНЦН ОПНГПЮВМШ Х ЩКЕЛЕМРЮПМШ. йЮРЕЦНПХЪ ЙБЮМРХРЮРХБМНЯРХ БЙКЧВЮЕР ЕДХМХВМНЯРЭ ЙЮЙ НДХМ ХГ ПЮБМНОПЮБМШУ ЙНМЯРХРСЕМРНБ, ОПНРХБНОНЯРЮБКЪЕЛСЧ ЛМНФЕЯРБЕММНЯРХ ЙЮЙ ТНПЛЮКЭМН, РЮЙ Х ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙХ (тЮИГСККЮЕБЮ 1986, 4-7).

ъГШЙНБЮЪ ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХЪ ГЮЙКЧВЮЧРЯЪ Б БШПЮФЕМХХ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЕММШУ УЮПЮЙРЕПХЯРХЙ ГМЮЛЕМЮРЕКЭМШУ ЯКНБ: ЯСЫЕЯРБХРЕКЭМШУ, ЦКЮЦНКНБ, ОПХКЮЦЮРЕКЭМШУ, МЮПЕВХИ. б ЯХКС НАНАЫЮЧЫЕ-НРПЮФЮРЕКЭМНИ ТСМЙЖХХ ЪГШЙЮ ЯХЦМХТХЙЮРХБМНЕ ГМЮВЕМХЕ ЯКНБЮ.

яНБНЙСОМНЯРЭ ЙЮВЕЯРБЕММН НДМНПНДМШУ ПЕТЕПЕМРНБ ЯНЯРЮБКЪЕР ОЕПБХВМСЧ, МНЛХМЮРХБМСЧ ЯТЕПС ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХХ. дХЮОЮГНМ МНЛХМЮРХБМНИ ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХХ ОПНЯРХПЮЕРЯЪ НР СМХБЕПЯЮКЭМНИ ПЕТЕПЕМРМНИ НАКЮЯРХ ДН ЕДХМХВМНЦН ОПЕДЯРЮБХРЕКЪ ДЮММНЦН ЙКЮЯЯЮ ПЕТЕПЕМРНБ.

йЮФДШИ ЕДХМХВМШИ ОПЕДЯРЮБХРЕКЭ МЕЙНРНПНЦНЙКЮЯЯЮ ПЕТЕПЕМРНБ ЛНФЕР ХЛЕРЭ ЯБНЧ ЙБЮМРХРЮРХБМСЧ ХМТПЮЯРПСЙРСПС, НОПЕДЕКЪЕЛСЧ ЙНКХВЕЯРБЕММШЛ ЯННРМНЬЕМХЕЛ ЕЦН ЙНЛОНМЕМРНБ ('КЕЯ'=ЛМНФЕЯРБН ДЕПЕБЭЕБ'). йНКХВЕЯРБЕММЮЪ УЮПЮЙРЕПХЯРХЙЮ БШУНДХР ГЮ ПЮЛЙХ МНЛХМЮРХБМНИ ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХХ ХЯУНДМНЦН ПЕТЕПЕМРЮ, ЯНЯРЮБКЪЪ ЯТЕПС ЕЦН БРНПХВМНИ, ЦХОНМХЛХВЕЯЙНИЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХХ.

цХОНЛХМХВЕЯЙЮЪ ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХЪ ЛНФЕР ХЛЕРЭ КХЬЭ КЕЙЯХВЕЯЙСЧ ТНПЛС БШПЮФЕМХЪ: "ЛМНЦНВХЯКЕММЮЪ РНКОЮ", "ЦСЯРНИ КЕЯ". мЮ НЯМНБЮМХХ НАНАЫЮЧЫЕ-МНЛХМЮРХБМНИ ТСМЙЖХХ КЕЙЯХВЕЯЙХУ ЕДХМХЖ ОПХ НАЯСФДЕМХХ МНЛХМЮРХБМНИ ЙБЮМРХТХЙЮЖХХ Б ЙЮВЕЯРБЕ ХЯУНДМНЦН ОПХМХЛЮЕРЯЪ ОНМЪРХЕ МЕ ЕДХМХВМНЦН ПЕТЕПЕМРЮ, Ю СМХБЕПЯЮКЭМНИ ПЕТЕПЕМРМНИ НАКЮЯРХ (ХКХ ДХЯЙПЕРМНИ ПЕТЕПЕМРМНИ НАКЮЯРХ) ВКЕМХЛНИ МЮ НРДЕКЭМШЕ ПЕТЕПЕМРШ, ВЕРЙН НРЦПЮМХВЕММШЕ ДПСЦ НР ДПСЦЮ: "ДЕПЕБЭЪ", Б НРКХВХЕ НР "ЛНКНЙН".

оПХ ПЮГКХВМШУ ПЕВЕБШУ СОНРПЕАКЕМХЪУ ЯКНБЮ ЯННРБЕРЯРБСЧЫЮЪ СМХБЕПЯЮКЭМЮЪ ПЕТЕПЕМРМЮЪ НАКЮЯРЭ ЛНФЕР АШРЭ ОПЕДЯРЮБКЕМЮ Б ОНКМНЛ ХКХ НЦПЮМХВЕММНЛ НАЗЕЛЕ. пЮГКХВЮЧРЯЪ РПХ БХДЮ ПЕВЕБНЦН НЦПЮМХВЕМХЪ СМХБЕПЯЮКЭМНИ ПЕТЕПЕМРМНИ НАКЮЯРХ ЯКНБЮ: ЯХЦМХТХЙЮРХБМНЕ, ДЕМНРЮРХБМНЕ Х ДЕИЙРХВЕЯЙНЕ.

яХЦМХТХЙЮРХБМНЕ НЦПЮМХВЕМХЕ ЯНЯРНХР Б ОПХБМЕЯЕМХХ Б ХЯУНДМНЕ ЪГШЙНБНЕ ЯХЦМХТХЙЮРХБМНЕ ГМЮВЕМХЕ ЯКНБЮ ПЪДЮ ДНОНКМХРЕКЭМШУ ЯЕЛЮМРХВЕЯЙХУ ОПХГМЮЙНБ. нМН МЕ ОПХБЪГЮМН Й ЙЮЙНИ КХ